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Lernmaterialien für EU Law an der Zurich University of Applied Sciences Winterthur

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History of the EU 


1986 Single European Act: 

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§ First major treaty reform since 1957
§ Main objective: Completion of the internal market until 1992
§ Major institutional reforms:
Ø Introduction of qualified majority voting, in particular in matters concerning the internal
market (Art. 100a EEC Treaty = Art. 95 EC Treaty = Art 114 TFEU), thereby in effect
repudiating the Luxembourg compromise
Ø Greater role of the European Parliament in the legislative process (introduction of
cooperation procedure)

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History of the EU 


2007 Treaty of Lisbon

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§ Main objectives: Deliver major institutional reform, while allaying fears of the European
public about a federal Europe and losing national identity
§ Major changes: Most of the substantive changes contained in the Constitutional Treaty
were preserved
Ø Removal of the three pillar structure: European Union attains legal personality,
European Community is dissolved (only Euratom remains as separate entity)
Ø Charter of Fundamental Rights of 2001 becomes legally binding
Ø Three treaties (with equal legal rank): (1) Treaty on EU, (2) Treaty on the Functioning
of the EU (the former EC Treaty), (3) Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU

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European Law - Membership / Institutions


European Council - Main Features 1

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Purpose (Art. 15 (1) TEU)

"The European Council shall provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development and shall define the general political directions and priorities thereof"


Commposition (Art 15(2) TEU)

- Heads of member states

- President of the European Council and President of the Commission, but without a vote 

- The high Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security police also present

 

Meetings (Art. 15(3) TEU)

-> Meets twice every six months, the President can convene special meetings


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TFEU Part 7

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General and final provisions (Arts. 335-358)

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European Law - Legal Sources / Lawmaking


EU Legal Sources

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1. Treaties (primary law) 

​- Treaty on European Union

- Treaty on the Functioning of the EU

- Protocols, Annexes, and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (CFR)

2. General principles of law (developed by the Court of Justice) 

3. International agreements concluded by the EU

4. EU legislation (secondary law) 

- Regulations 

- Directions

- Decisisons

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TFEU Art. 230

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Parliament questions the commission

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​EU Law - Positive Integration 


Whats the purpose of the notification requirement? 


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Basically the overall purpose to remove problems before they are actually created. The first three months are necessary -> member state is able to study and think about possible issues -> if there is one, the commission can talk with the member state. 

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European Law - Membership / Institutions


EU Institutions: Overview

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- European Council 

- Council (of the European Union) 

- European Parliament

- (European) Commission

- Court of Justice of the European Union

- European Central Bank

- Court of Auditors

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European Law - Competences / relationship EU - Domestic Law


Competences

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Basic Principles (Art. 5 TEU) 

Categories of competences (Arts. 2-6 TFEU)

Example: International agreements (Arts 3(2) and 2016(1) TFEU)

Borad horizontal competences (Art. 114 and 352 TFEU)

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History of the EU


2001 Treaty of Nice

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§ Main objective: Institutional changes necessary for eastern enlargement
§ Major changes
Ø Integration of the new member states into the EU institutions: Weighing of votes in the
Council, distribution of seats in the European Parliament, size of the Commission
Ø However, beyond the changes which were absolute necessary for enlargement, no
major institutional reforms were achieved

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EU Law - Overview of substantive law / Fundamental rights


Fundamental Rights - Basic types of human rights

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Individual rights

Civil and political rights W

- Social rights E


Collective rights:

3rd Gen. S

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TFEU Art. 2 (2) & 4

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Shared competences

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen EU Law Kurs an der Zurich University of Applied Sciences Winterthur - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

History of the EU 


1986 Single European Act: 

A:

§ First major treaty reform since 1957
§ Main objective: Completion of the internal market until 1992
§ Major institutional reforms:
Ø Introduction of qualified majority voting, in particular in matters concerning the internal
market (Art. 100a EEC Treaty = Art. 95 EC Treaty = Art 114 TFEU), thereby in effect
repudiating the Luxembourg compromise
Ø Greater role of the European Parliament in the legislative process (introduction of
cooperation procedure)

Q:

History of the EU 


2007 Treaty of Lisbon

A:

§ Main objectives: Deliver major institutional reform, while allaying fears of the European
public about a federal Europe and losing national identity
§ Major changes: Most of the substantive changes contained in the Constitutional Treaty
were preserved
Ø Removal of the three pillar structure: European Union attains legal personality,
European Community is dissolved (only Euratom remains as separate entity)
Ø Charter of Fundamental Rights of 2001 becomes legally binding
Ø Three treaties (with equal legal rank): (1) Treaty on EU, (2) Treaty on the Functioning
of the EU (the former EC Treaty), (3) Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU

Q:

European Law - Membership / Institutions


European Council - Main Features 1

A:

Purpose (Art. 15 (1) TEU)

"The European Council shall provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development and shall define the general political directions and priorities thereof"


Commposition (Art 15(2) TEU)

- Heads of member states

- President of the European Council and President of the Commission, but without a vote 

- The high Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security police also present

 

Meetings (Art. 15(3) TEU)

-> Meets twice every six months, the President can convene special meetings


Q:

TFEU Part 7

A:

General and final provisions (Arts. 335-358)

Q:

European Law - Legal Sources / Lawmaking


EU Legal Sources

A:

1. Treaties (primary law) 

​- Treaty on European Union

- Treaty on the Functioning of the EU

- Protocols, Annexes, and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (CFR)

2. General principles of law (developed by the Court of Justice) 

3. International agreements concluded by the EU

4. EU legislation (secondary law) 

- Regulations 

- Directions

- Decisisons

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Q:

TFEU Art. 230

A:

Parliament questions the commission

Q:

​EU Law - Positive Integration 


Whats the purpose of the notification requirement? 


A:

Basically the overall purpose to remove problems before they are actually created. The first three months are necessary -> member state is able to study and think about possible issues -> if there is one, the commission can talk with the member state. 

Q:

European Law - Membership / Institutions


EU Institutions: Overview

A:

- European Council 

- Council (of the European Union) 

- European Parliament

- (European) Commission

- Court of Justice of the European Union

- European Central Bank

- Court of Auditors

Q:

European Law - Competences / relationship EU - Domestic Law


Competences

A:

Basic Principles (Art. 5 TEU) 

Categories of competences (Arts. 2-6 TFEU)

Example: International agreements (Arts 3(2) and 2016(1) TFEU)

Borad horizontal competences (Art. 114 and 352 TFEU)

Q:

History of the EU


2001 Treaty of Nice

A:


§ Main objective: Institutional changes necessary for eastern enlargement
§ Major changes
Ø Integration of the new member states into the EU institutions: Weighing of votes in the
Council, distribution of seats in the European Parliament, size of the Commission
Ø However, beyond the changes which were absolute necessary for enlargement, no
major institutional reforms were achieved

Q:

EU Law - Overview of substantive law / Fundamental rights


Fundamental Rights - Basic types of human rights

A:

Individual rights

Civil and political rights W

- Social rights E


Collective rights:

3rd Gen. S

Q:

TFEU Art. 2 (2) & 4

A:

Shared competences

EU Law

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