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Lernmaterialien für NG an der Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

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Reasons for negotiating (general)

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  • sharing/dividing limited resources
  • creating something new that neither party could have created on their own
  • resolving a problem between the parties
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Key process elements in a negotiation

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  • mutual adjustment
  • managing conflict
  • managing interdependence
  • creating/claiming value
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Definition of conflict

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  • sharp disagreement or opposition
  • includes the perceived divergence of interests
  • results from interaction of interdependent people who perceived incompatible goals and interference from each other in achieving those goals
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Process of creating & claiming value

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Most negotiations are a combination of both processes.

When the goal is to claim value, situations turn into distributive bargaining and win-lose-tactics are deployed.

When the goal is to create value, situations turn into integrative bargaining and win-win-tactics are deployed.

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Structural elements of distributive bargaining

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  • Bargaining Mix
  • Bargaining Range
    • target points, resistance points, initial offers
  • BATNAs
  • Settlement Point
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Bargaining mix in distributive negotiation

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package of issues for negotiation

  • each item has S, T, and R
  • parties may value issues differently
  • larger bargaining mixes provide more opportunity for trade-offs
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Interests in distributive bargaining

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Motives underlying positions & their prioritization; affect the bargaining mix

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Positions in distributive bargaining

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  1. opening positions
  2. opening stance
  3. concessions
  4. final offer
  5. settlement
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Opening stance in distributive bargaining

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Attitude in the beginning of the negotiation: moderate or competitive

Should align with opening offer

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Patterns of concessions

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Signals progress of negotiation: decrease in concessions can signal approach of resistance point

  • concessions > immediate settlement
  • gradual > immediate concessions
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Concession Guidelines

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  1. give enough room
  2. make the other reveal needs & objectives first
  3. be first to concede on minor, not on major issues
  4. portray unimportant concessions as valuable
  5. don't concede easily
  6. use trade-offs
  7. concede slowly
  8. don't reveal your deadline
  9. occasionally say no
  10. don't take back concessions
  11. record concessions made by other, identify patterns
  12. don't concede too often, too soon or too much
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Definition: Negotiation

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Negotiation is a form of decision making in which two or more parties talk with one another in an effort to resolve their opposing interests

A social process in which interdependent people with conflicting interests determine how they are going to allocate resources in the future

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Q:

Reasons for negotiating (general)

A:
  • sharing/dividing limited resources
  • creating something new that neither party could have created on their own
  • resolving a problem between the parties
Q:

Key process elements in a negotiation

A:
  • mutual adjustment
  • managing conflict
  • managing interdependence
  • creating/claiming value
Q:

Definition of conflict

A:
  • sharp disagreement or opposition
  • includes the perceived divergence of interests
  • results from interaction of interdependent people who perceived incompatible goals and interference from each other in achieving those goals
Q:

Process of creating & claiming value

A:

Most negotiations are a combination of both processes.

When the goal is to claim value, situations turn into distributive bargaining and win-lose-tactics are deployed.

When the goal is to create value, situations turn into integrative bargaining and win-win-tactics are deployed.

Q:

Structural elements of distributive bargaining

A:
  • Bargaining Mix
  • Bargaining Range
    • target points, resistance points, initial offers
  • BATNAs
  • Settlement Point
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Bargaining mix in distributive negotiation

A:

package of issues for negotiation

  • each item has S, T, and R
  • parties may value issues differently
  • larger bargaining mixes provide more opportunity for trade-offs
Q:

Interests in distributive bargaining

A:

Motives underlying positions & their prioritization; affect the bargaining mix

Q:

Positions in distributive bargaining

A:
  1. opening positions
  2. opening stance
  3. concessions
  4. final offer
  5. settlement
Q:

Opening stance in distributive bargaining

A:

Attitude in the beginning of the negotiation: moderate or competitive

Should align with opening offer

Q:

Patterns of concessions

A:

Signals progress of negotiation: decrease in concessions can signal approach of resistance point

  • concessions > immediate settlement
  • gradual > immediate concessions
Q:

Concession Guidelines

A:
  1. give enough room
  2. make the other reveal needs & objectives first
  3. be first to concede on minor, not on major issues
  4. portray unimportant concessions as valuable
  5. don't concede easily
  6. use trade-offs
  7. concede slowly
  8. don't reveal your deadline
  9. occasionally say no
  10. don't take back concessions
  11. record concessions made by other, identify patterns
  12. don't concede too often, too soon or too much
Q:

Definition: Negotiation

A:

Negotiation is a form of decision making in which two or more parties talk with one another in an effort to resolve their opposing interests

A social process in which interdependent people with conflicting interests determine how they are going to allocate resources in the future

NG

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