Development of multicellular systems at University of Zurich

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organiser

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morphogen

Exemplary flashcards for Development of multicellular systems at the University of Zurich on StudySmarter:

 cell differentiation

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Similarity

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ANALOGS

Exemplary flashcards for Development of multicellular systems at the University of Zurich on StudySmarter:

PARALOGS

Exemplary flashcards for Development of multicellular systems at the University of Zurich on StudySmarter:

ORTHOLOGS

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Exemplary flashcards for Development of multicellular systems at the University of Zurich on StudySmarter:

How can you overcome pleiotropy and study the role of different individual genes in living organisms?

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competent cell

Exemplary flashcards for Development of multicellular systems at the University of Zurich on StudySmarter:

What controls pattern formation?

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twin spot clones

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advantages of recombination

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Exemplary flashcards for Development of multicellular systems at the University of Zurich on StudySmarter:

Development of multicellular systems

organiser

Tissue that induces and patterns surroundings via induction

Development of multicellular systems

morphogen

molecule that can provide positional information by regulating gene expression in a concentration dependent manner

Development of multicellular systems

 cell differentiation

process through which immature cells become progressively specialised

Development of multicellular systems

Similarity

describes the degree of sequence match between compared sequences

(homologous genes can be 100& similar or only 72%)

Development of multicellular systems

ANALOGS

Genes/ proteins share same activity but not a common origin à have the same function but they lack sufficient similarity to imply that they have a common origin. 

à homologous activity but heterologous origin

Development of multicellular systems

PARALOGS

homologous genes (similar sequences) produced by a gene duplication

à common ancestral gene but have diverged during evolution within the same species à divergence of sequence leads to different activities 

à homologous origin but heterologous activities --> “Division of labour

Development of multicellular systems

ORTHOLOGS

after gene duplication one homolog sorts with one species and the other one with the other à sequences diverge but they maintain the same activity

à orthologs have homologous origin and also homologous activity

Development of multicellular systems

How can you overcome pleiotropy and study the role of different individual genes in living organisms?

mosaic animals = composed by >2 genotipically different cells 

by method of induction of mitotic recombination --> recombination occurs between sister chromatids in somatic cells before cell division producing 2 cells with different genotypes

drosophila (FLP/FRT System)

mouse (CRE/LoX-P System)


transposable elements can be used to insert in genome eg. Flp (Flipase) binds to Dna sequences caled FRT--> catalyzes chromosomal exchange, when FRT is present on both chromatids it catalyzes transchromosomal exchange. (happens in G2 phase while homologous are pared)

When Flipase is expressed while a tissue grows, there will be 2 population of cells..

cells with no recombination (normal phenotype) and homozygot mutant

when recombination happens early, intere structures are mutated (whole ear) 

later induction in a tissue leads to a clone of cells, that arose from one single ancestral cell

Development of multicellular systems

competent cell

defined by the ability to respond to an inductive signal, competence can be spatial and temporarily restricted 



eg. cell lacks receptor and is not able to bind inducer (ligand) --> cell is not competent

Development of multicellular systems

What controls pattern formation?

spatial information system (eg morphogens) operating at long range assign positional values so that cells follow a location-pertinent differentiation pathway

develop "cartesian system" --> cells need to know where they are in order to decide what to become

Development of multicellular systems

twin spot clones

2 individual and gen. different cells that have originated from the same meiotic recombination event

Development of multicellular systems

advantages of recombination

site specific

recombination is inducible, highly efficient, (gene encoding recombinase can be put under the control of a tissue specific promoter --> inducible with light, heat)

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