Pharmacology at University of Zambia

Flashcards and summaries for Pharmacology at the University of Zambia

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Pharmacology at the University of Zambia

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Drugs acting on PCT

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Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
MOA
Uses
Adverse Effects
Contraindications

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Loop Diuretics Drugs
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Exemplary flashcards for Pharmacology at the University of Zambia on StudySmarter:

Loop Diuretics 
MOA
Uses
Adverse Effects
Contraindications

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DCT Thiazides

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DCT Thiazide like drugs

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Thiazide Drugs
MOA
Uses
Adverse Effects

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Collecting tubule and Duct Drugs

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Collecting Tubule and duct hormones

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K Sparing Diuretics
Drugs
Function

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Aldosterone Antag
Drugs
Actions
Uses
Adverse effects
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Na Channel Blockers
Drugs
Uses
Adverse Effects

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Exemplary flashcards for Pharmacology at the University of Zambia on StudySmarter:

Pharmacology

Drugs acting on PCT
Acetazolamine
Dichlorphenamide
Methazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitors)

Pharmacology

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
MOA
Uses
Adverse Effects
Contraindications
MOA: reabsorbtion of HCO3 and Na
          Block renal CA and ciliary body in eye
          Inhibition = facilitates GABA synthesis
Uses: rare in diuretics
           Mainly treat Glaucoma
           Epilepsy
           Inc alkalinity in urine=excretion of cysteine
Adverse Effects:
  • Drowsiness
  • headache
  • GI disturbances
  • metabolic acidosis
  • hyponatremia
  • hypokalemia
Contraindications: Hepatic cirrhosis  

Pharmacology

Loop Diuretics Drugs
Frusemide (most important)
Torsemide
Butemide
Ethacrynic

Pharmacology

Loop Diuretics 
MOA
Uses
Adverse Effects
Contraindications
MOA: Acts on asc limb
  • Inhibit Na/K/Cl co transport in thick asc limb
  • Interfere with reabsorbtion of K, Ca and Mg in loop
  • induce renal syn of prostagladins= dilation of Bv and dec in peripheral resistance      
Uses: hypertension in impaired renal function
  • congestive heart failure
  • acute pulmonary edema
  • acute +chronic renal failure
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • hypercalcemia
  • hyperkalemia
  • chemical intoxication

  • Preferred in Na and water retention treatment
Adverse Effects: hypovolemia
  • electrolyte imbalance
  • CNS effects- ototoxicity, the usual
  • hyperglycemia
  • hyperuriccemia
  • blood dyscraisias
  • hypersensitivity reactions
Contraindications

Pharmacology

DCT Thiazides
chlorothiazide
hydrochlorothiazide
bendoflumethiazide
cyclothiazide

Pharmacology

DCT Thiazide like drugs
Chlorothalidone
indapamide
metolazone

Pharmacology

Thiazide Drugs
MOA
Uses
Adverse Effects

MOA: Inhibit Na transport in DCT= loss of Na and H2O
  • inc loss of K and Mg but reduce Ca excretion by inc parathyroid hormone(may cause hypercalcemia)
  • loss of action in renal failure
  • effective in low GFR
Uses:
  • Mild to moderate hypertension
  • Mild heart failure
  • renal calculi
  • chronic renal failure
  • severe resistant oedema
  • nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
  • idiopathic hypercalcuria
Adverse Effects:
  • hypokalemia
  • hyponatremia
  • orthostatic hypotension
  • hyperuricemia
  • hyperlipidemia
  • metabolic alkalosis
  • hyperglycemia
  • GI distress
  • headache
  • Muscle Spasms

Pharmacology

Collecting tubule and Duct Drugs

Aquaporins
Spirinolactone
Triamterene and amiloride


Pharmacology

Collecting Tubule and duct hormones
Vasopressin
aldosterone

Pharmacology

K Sparing Diuretics
Drugs
Function
Amiloride and Triamterene 
aldosterone antagonist
Enhance diuretic effects of loop and thiazide diuretics

Pharmacology

Aldosterone Antag
Drugs
Actions
Uses
Adverse effects
  • Spironolactone + epilerenone
  • Interfere with Na/K exchange in collecting tubules
  • Prevent K being pumped into tubule 
  • dec in Na reabsorb = loss of Na and water
  • Prevent hypokalemia induced by loop/ thiazide diuretics
  • secondary hyperaldosterone due to hepatic cirrohis and ascites
  • Conns syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism)
  • congestive heart failure
  • Spironolactone + eplerenone
    • hyperkalemia
    • hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis
    • arrythmias
  • spironolactone Anti-androgenic 
    • M=gynecomastia and impotence
    • F=menstrual abnormalities
  • Contraindicated in renal insufficiency
  • caution in hepatic disease

Pharmacology

Na Channel Blockers
Drugs
Uses
Adverse Effects

Amiloride
Triamterene
  • Block entry of Na into tubule
  • similar to aldosterone antagonist
  • mild diuretic effect
  • used in conjuction with K
  • Both - contraindicated in renal insufficiency
    • nausea and vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • hyperkalemia
    • metabolic acidosis
    • vent arrythmias
  • Trimeterene Kidney stones

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