Muscular System at University Of Prince Edward Island | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Muscular System an der University of Prince Edward Island

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Whole Muscle Force Generation 

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The total force/strength of a muscle is determined by two components:

1. Active component: action potential on membrane of muscle fiber initiates a series of biochemical changes; causes binding of the heads of myosin filaments to the actin filaments 

2. Elastic component: energy storage. Important for muscles engaged in repetitive actions.


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Rectus abdominis 

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A group of hypaxial muscle

- Extend longitudinally on either side of linea alba 

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Arch muscles (not hyoid or mandibular)

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- In fish the remaining branchial arches function in raising and lowering pharyngeal region and manipulating gills 

- Cucullaris: formed by a fusion of several levators arising from adjacent arches

- Trapezius and mastoid: in tetrapods extends from axial musculature to scapula 

- In tetrapods the remaining musculature has reduced, associated with larynx, pharynx

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Where do cranial muscles arise from?

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Hypobranchial muscles (throat, tongue): trunk somites

Branchiomeric muscles: head somites

Eye muscles: head somites 

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Define tendons. 

What are their main functions?

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Tendons are collagenous bundles continuous with those found in muscle sheath (epimysium) and periosteum. 

- Allow muscles to be located in one area while acting on bones located some distance away

- Can also store energy 

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Load

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External force that opposes the force of the muscle

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Myofibrils 

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Rod-like unit of a muscle cell/fiber 

Thin filaments: actin

Thick filaments: myosin

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a. Compare red vs. white skeletal muscle

b. How does skeletal muscle differ in birds vs. fish

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a. Red skeletal muscle: 

- Lots of myoglobin

- Resistant for fatigue

- Good for long distances

White skeletal muscle: 

- Less myoglobin

- Contracts rapidly

- Good for short bursts of activity 


b. Birds:

- White flight muscles used for short bursts of flight

- Red muscle located in legs for prolonged use

Fish:

- Most: red muscle forms thin wedge just under skin

- Tuna & lamnid sharks: red muscle central in body


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Explain the 'sliding filament mechanism' of muscle contraction 

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- Myosin binds actin

- Uses ATP 

It is the process of muscle contraction involving the sliding of actin & myosin myofilaments past each other to shorten the length of each sacromere. When sacromere shortens, whole fiber shortens. 

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Why is muscle shape important?

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It affects: 

- Length the muscle can contract

- Velocity of contraction

- Force of contraction 

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Compare isotonic vs. isometric muscle contraction

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- Isotonic muscle contraction muscle shortens (load < force of muscle)

- Isometric muscle contraction produces muscle tension without a change in limb movement; muscle does not shorten (load > force of muscle)

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What are the main functions of muscles?

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- Movement

- Restrain motion

- Sphincters

- Heat production

- Electrical signalling 

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Q:

Whole Muscle Force Generation 

A:

The total force/strength of a muscle is determined by two components:

1. Active component: action potential on membrane of muscle fiber initiates a series of biochemical changes; causes binding of the heads of myosin filaments to the actin filaments 

2. Elastic component: energy storage. Important for muscles engaged in repetitive actions.


Q:

Rectus abdominis 

A:

A group of hypaxial muscle

- Extend longitudinally on either side of linea alba 

Q:

Arch muscles (not hyoid or mandibular)

A:

- In fish the remaining branchial arches function in raising and lowering pharyngeal region and manipulating gills 

- Cucullaris: formed by a fusion of several levators arising from adjacent arches

- Trapezius and mastoid: in tetrapods extends from axial musculature to scapula 

- In tetrapods the remaining musculature has reduced, associated with larynx, pharynx

Q:

Where do cranial muscles arise from?

A:

Hypobranchial muscles (throat, tongue): trunk somites

Branchiomeric muscles: head somites

Eye muscles: head somites 

Q:

Define tendons. 

What are their main functions?

A:

Tendons are collagenous bundles continuous with those found in muscle sheath (epimysium) and periosteum. 

- Allow muscles to be located in one area while acting on bones located some distance away

- Can also store energy 

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Q:

Load

A:

External force that opposes the force of the muscle

Q:

Myofibrils 

A:

Rod-like unit of a muscle cell/fiber 

Thin filaments: actin

Thick filaments: myosin

Q:

a. Compare red vs. white skeletal muscle

b. How does skeletal muscle differ in birds vs. fish

A:

a. Red skeletal muscle: 

- Lots of myoglobin

- Resistant for fatigue

- Good for long distances

White skeletal muscle: 

- Less myoglobin

- Contracts rapidly

- Good for short bursts of activity 


b. Birds:

- White flight muscles used for short bursts of flight

- Red muscle located in legs for prolonged use

Fish:

- Most: red muscle forms thin wedge just under skin

- Tuna & lamnid sharks: red muscle central in body


Q:

Explain the 'sliding filament mechanism' of muscle contraction 

A:

- Myosin binds actin

- Uses ATP 

It is the process of muscle contraction involving the sliding of actin & myosin myofilaments past each other to shorten the length of each sacromere. When sacromere shortens, whole fiber shortens. 

Q:

Why is muscle shape important?

A:

It affects: 

- Length the muscle can contract

- Velocity of contraction

- Force of contraction 

Q:

Compare isotonic vs. isometric muscle contraction

A:

- Isotonic muscle contraction muscle shortens (load < force of muscle)

- Isometric muscle contraction produces muscle tension without a change in limb movement; muscle does not shorten (load > force of muscle)

Q:

What are the main functions of muscles?

A:

- Movement

- Restrain motion

- Sphincters

- Heat production

- Electrical signalling 

Muscular System

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