Pharmacology at University of Otago

Flashcards and summaries for Pharmacology at the University of Otago

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Pharmacology at the University of Otago

Exemplary flashcards for Pharmacology at the University of Otago on StudySmarter:

What type of survival functions
controlled by the hypothalamus?

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Where is the stress control centre located?

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Summary- HPA axis

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What do you think stress is?

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Name 3 physiological responses mediated by adrenaline

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Name 4 physiological responses mediated by cortisol

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Corticotropin-releasing hormone
(CRH) neurons control:

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Vasopressin neurons control:

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Hypothalamic CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) receive afferent input from which regions on the brain?

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Where do the axons of CRH neurons terminate?

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Why do CRH neurons terminate in the Median Eminence?

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What receptor type does corticotropin release hormone (CRH) bind to?

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Exemplary flashcards for Pharmacology at the University of Otago on StudySmarter:

Pharmacology

What type of survival functions
controlled by the hypothalamus?

Appetite
Reproduction
Aggression
Pituitary
Water balance
Growth
Metabolism
Circadian rhythms
Stress responses

Pharmacology

Where is the stress control centre located?

Paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

Abbreviated to PVN or PVH

Major divisions of the PVN:
magnocellular, parvicellular,
preautonomic

Many different cell types:

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons
Somatostatin neurons
Oxytocin neurons
Vasopressin neurons
Preautonomic

Pharmacology

Summary- HPA axis

• Hypothalamic CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from corticotrophs in the pituitary.
•ACTH acts on receptors in the adrenal to stimulate corticosteroid synthesis and release
• Basal corticosteroid secretion is important for normal physiology (in the absence of stress).
• Surge of corticosteroid secretion drives physiological changes to assist in survival following stress

Pharmacology

What do you think stress is?

The neural and physiological responses
of an organism to a real or perceived threat.

Pharmacology

Name 3 physiological responses mediated by adrenaline

Increased HR and cardiac output
Increased blood pressure
Fast mobilization of fuel stores

Pharmacology

Name 4 physiological responses mediated by cortisol

Longer lasting mobilisation of fuel stores
Suppression of immune responses
Enhanced cardiac contractility
Modulation of brain function

Pharmacology

Corticotropin-releasing hormone
(CRH) neurons control:

The neuroendocrine
stress response

Pharmacology

Vasopressin neurons control:

The sympathetic stress response

Pharmacology

Hypothalamic CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) receive afferent input from which regions on the brain?

1. Arcuate Nucleus (Hypothalamus)

2. Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus (DMH)

3. Prefrontal Cortex

4. Amygdala

5. Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (NTS)

6. Ventrolateral Medulla (VLM)

7. Hippocampus


The afferent input it receives provides information on the amount of stress the body is in. The NTS provides information on blood-glucose levels, the amygdala provides emotional information, the ventrolateral medulla provides information on breathing and blood pressure, the arcuate nucleus provides information on energy balance and hunger - to name a few.

Pharmacology

Where do the axons of CRH neurons terminate?

The Median Eminence

Pharmacology

Why do CRH neurons terminate in the Median Eminence?

Because the Median Eminence has a leaky blood-brain-barrier. Regular BBB has tight junctions between endothelial cells, whereas, the median eminence has fenestrated capillaries.

Pharmacology

What receptor type does corticotropin release hormone (CRH) bind to?

CRHR1 receptors

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 on Corticotroph cells in the anterior pituitary (AP)

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