Internal Medicine at University Of Latvia | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Internal medicine an der University of Latvia

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the functions of the gastrointestinal tract?
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1. Motility
2. Secretion
3. Digestion
4. Absorption

two main functions: assimilating nutrients, eliminating waste
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are most frequent upper gastrointestinal symptoms?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Xerostomia (mouth dryness)
  • Odynophagia (pain when swallowing)
  • Dysphagia (difficulties to swallow)
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What are the two most important dysmotility syndromes of the esophagus?
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  • Achalasia
  • Esophagospasm
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What are symptoms of gastrointestinal diseases?
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1. Abdominal pain
2. Nausea and vomitting
3. Diarrhea
4. GI Bleeding
5. Obstructive Jaundice
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What is an esophageal diverticula and what is the most common/rare type?
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  • Pouch that protrudes outwards from the wall of the esophagus
  • most common type: Zenker diverticulum above the cricopharyngeal muscle
  • rare type: epiphrenic diverticula due to motor disorders of the lower esophageal sphincter 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the problems/complications of dysphagia?
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  • only from symptoms impossible to find the level of damage
  • lump in the throat 
  • can indicate:
  • Globus hysterics, GERD, cancer of hypopharynx 
  • may develop 25-35 years after Poliomyelitis 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are common symptoms of Dysphagia?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Swallowing disorders (food stays in mouth)
  • food aspiration 
  • Swallowing disorders
  • nasopharingeal regurgitation
  • cough after swallowing
  • hiccups
  • changes of the voice
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the treatment of mucosal damage?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Avoid ethiology (GERD, NSAID, infection),

2. Proton pump inhibitors (omeprasole),

3. Antacids (maalox, almagel)

4. H2 antagonists (ranitidine, famotidine),

5. Endoscopic treatment.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are common symptoms of Xerostomia?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Dysfagia
  • dry mouth
  • increased viscosity of saliva
  • bad taste
  • burning sensation in mouth
  • teeth destruction
  • bad smell of breath
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What is the Barrett esophagus?
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  • Premalignant metaplastic transformation of the epithelium (dysplasia) = squamous epitelium transformation into the intestinal like epitelium.
  • high risk of developing adenocarcinoma (here esophageal cancer)
  • age 55-65
  • men are more often affected than women (1:10)
Therapy:
  • medical treatment: PPI and prokinetics
  • endoscopic treatment
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is Achalasia and its theraphy/treatment?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • rare disorder making it difficult for food/liquids to pass from esophagus into the stomach
Symptoms:
  • Aperistalsis of esophagus (weakness of smooth muscles to move food down)
  • Lower sphincter relaxation disturbances
  • Lower sphincter hypertension (spasm)

X-ray: “bird head shape“ phenomenon

Theraphy/treatment:
  • endoscopic balloon dilation: inflate to open area 
  • Botulini toxin injections: injection in lower esophagus sphincter, only short duration time

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is described by hiatus hernia?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • the stomach is moving upwards and pushing into the lower chest due to weakness of the diaphragm
  • more serious form: paraesophageal hernia
  • a large hernia is requiring surgery
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  • 76 Studierende
  • 0 Lernmaterialien

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Q:
What are the functions of the gastrointestinal tract?
A:
1. Motility
2. Secretion
3. Digestion
4. Absorption

two main functions: assimilating nutrients, eliminating waste
Q:
What are most frequent upper gastrointestinal symptoms?
A:
  • Xerostomia (mouth dryness)
  • Odynophagia (pain when swallowing)
  • Dysphagia (difficulties to swallow)
Q:
What are the two most important dysmotility syndromes of the esophagus?
A:
  • Achalasia
  • Esophagospasm
Q:
What are symptoms of gastrointestinal diseases?
A:
1. Abdominal pain
2. Nausea and vomitting
3. Diarrhea
4. GI Bleeding
5. Obstructive Jaundice
Q:
What is an esophageal diverticula and what is the most common/rare type?
A:
  • Pouch that protrudes outwards from the wall of the esophagus
  • most common type: Zenker diverticulum above the cricopharyngeal muscle
  • rare type: epiphrenic diverticula due to motor disorders of the lower esophageal sphincter 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What are the problems/complications of dysphagia?
A:
  • only from symptoms impossible to find the level of damage
  • lump in the throat 
  • can indicate:
  • Globus hysterics, GERD, cancer of hypopharynx 
  • may develop 25-35 years after Poliomyelitis 
Q:
What are common symptoms of Dysphagia?

A:
  • Swallowing disorders (food stays in mouth)
  • food aspiration 
  • Swallowing disorders
  • nasopharingeal regurgitation
  • cough after swallowing
  • hiccups
  • changes of the voice
Q:
What is the treatment of mucosal damage?
A:
1. Avoid ethiology (GERD, NSAID, infection),

2. Proton pump inhibitors (omeprasole),

3. Antacids (maalox, almagel)

4. H2 antagonists (ranitidine, famotidine),

5. Endoscopic treatment.
Q:
What are common symptoms of Xerostomia?
A:
  • Dysfagia
  • dry mouth
  • increased viscosity of saliva
  • bad taste
  • burning sensation in mouth
  • teeth destruction
  • bad smell of breath
Q:
What is the Barrett esophagus?
A:
  • Premalignant metaplastic transformation of the epithelium (dysplasia) = squamous epitelium transformation into the intestinal like epitelium.
  • high risk of developing adenocarcinoma (here esophageal cancer)
  • age 55-65
  • men are more often affected than women (1:10)
Therapy:
  • medical treatment: PPI and prokinetics
  • endoscopic treatment
Q:
What is Achalasia and its theraphy/treatment?
A:
  • rare disorder making it difficult for food/liquids to pass from esophagus into the stomach
Symptoms:
  • Aperistalsis of esophagus (weakness of smooth muscles to move food down)
  • Lower sphincter relaxation disturbances
  • Lower sphincter hypertension (spasm)

X-ray: “bird head shape“ phenomenon

Theraphy/treatment:
  • endoscopic balloon dilation: inflate to open area 
  • Botulini toxin injections: injection in lower esophagus sphincter, only short duration time

Q:
What is described by hiatus hernia?
A:
  • the stomach is moving upwards and pushing into the lower chest due to weakness of the diaphragm
  • more serious form: paraesophageal hernia
  • a large hernia is requiring surgery
Internal medicine

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