1. Crime was judged based on religious practices. Homosexuality seen as a sin, so individuals were punished for this.
2. Aristocrats were in control of what can be seen as a crime, and devised punishments for them. Property crimes were punishable by death.
3. Acts were seen as a crime if it threatened their wealth and status in society.
4. Thus, laws were only applied to the poor.
5. Overtime, different opinions were formed on criminal behaviour. Society moved away from religion and towards secular rational thinking.
6. Now believed people chose to commit a crime, and focused more on humanistic ideas and rehabilitation, rather than harsh punishments.
7. This led to increased skepticism towards aristocrats (French Revolution).
8. There was also a scientific revolution and more investigative approaches. More focus on collecting evidence and questioning witnesses.
9. A philosophical enlightenment also happened; people have Freewill and can choose to commit crimes or not.