Morality And Social Control - Forensic Psychology at University Of Kent At Canterbury | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Why were laws devised?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Because of a universal concern of harmful behaviours (Ellis, 1987).
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the definition of a criminal?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
These are individuals who violate the laws of the state.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What two things determine what can be considered a crime?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Actus Reus
2. Mens Rea
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is Actus Reus?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The voluntary perpetration of a crime.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is Mens Rea?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The intention to commit a crime.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the historical background of the explanations of crime.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Crime was judged based on religious practices. Homosexuality seen as a sin, so individuals were punished for this.
2. Aristocrats were in control of what can be seen as a crime, and devised punishments for them. Property crimes were punishable by death.
3. Acts were seen as a crime if it threatened their wealth and status in society. 
4. Thus, laws were only applied to the poor. 
5. Overtime, different opinions were formed on criminal behaviour. Society moved away from religion and towards secular rational thinking.
6. Now believed people chose to commit a crime, and focused more on humanistic ideas and rehabilitation, rather than harsh punishments.
7. This led to increased skepticism towards aristocrats (French Revolution).
8. There was also a scientific revolution and more investigative approaches. More focus on collecting evidence and questioning witnesses.
9. A philosophical enlightenment also happened; people have Freewill and can choose to commit crimes or not.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What two things determine how laws are seen?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Mala in se.
2. Mala Prohibita.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is Mala in se?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
A natural law, opinions of it doesn’t change across cultures. E.g: Rape, Murder.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is Mala Prohibita?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Human law, it’s definition changes across cultures and countries, and is informed by newly learnt knowledge. E.g: jaywalking, gambling, marijuanna.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What affects a person’s obedience to laws?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
A conflict between law and morality. E.g: historically individuals have felt that being ordered to do something by an authority figure means they did nothing wrong and believe they were just following instructions.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
List the 3 criteria of right and wrong.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Rule: power of authority.
2. Role: legitimacy of authority.
3. Value: whether the individual is guided by moral principles.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe 3 ways criminality was seen in the past.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Crime once seen as a conscious act against the will of  God.
2. Crime also seen as an unnatural act influenced by the devil.
3. As a result, punishments were harsh and physical, to remove evil spirits from the body (Vold et al., 1998).
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Q:
Why were laws devised?
A:
Because of a universal concern of harmful behaviours (Ellis, 1987).
Q:
What is the definition of a criminal?
A:
These are individuals who violate the laws of the state.
Q:
What two things determine what can be considered a crime?
A:
1. Actus Reus
2. Mens Rea
Q:
What is Actus Reus?
A:
The voluntary perpetration of a crime.
Q:
What is Mens Rea?
A:
The intention to commit a crime.
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Describe the historical background of the explanations of crime.
A:
1. Crime was judged based on religious practices. Homosexuality seen as a sin, so individuals were punished for this.
2. Aristocrats were in control of what can be seen as a crime, and devised punishments for them. Property crimes were punishable by death.
3. Acts were seen as a crime if it threatened their wealth and status in society. 
4. Thus, laws were only applied to the poor. 
5. Overtime, different opinions were formed on criminal behaviour. Society moved away from religion and towards secular rational thinking.
6. Now believed people chose to commit a crime, and focused more on humanistic ideas and rehabilitation, rather than harsh punishments.
7. This led to increased skepticism towards aristocrats (French Revolution).
8. There was also a scientific revolution and more investigative approaches. More focus on collecting evidence and questioning witnesses.
9. A philosophical enlightenment also happened; people have Freewill and can choose to commit crimes or not.
Q:
What two things determine how laws are seen?
A:
1. Mala in se.
2. Mala Prohibita.
Q:
What is Mala in se?
A:
A natural law, opinions of it doesn’t change across cultures. E.g: Rape, Murder.
Q:
What is Mala Prohibita?
A:
Human law, it’s definition changes across cultures and countries, and is informed by newly learnt knowledge. E.g: jaywalking, gambling, marijuanna.
Q:
What affects a person’s obedience to laws?
A:
A conflict between law and morality. E.g: historically individuals have felt that being ordered to do something by an authority figure means they did nothing wrong and believe they were just following instructions.
Q:
List the 3 criteria of right and wrong.
A:
1. Rule: power of authority.
2. Role: legitimacy of authority.
3. Value: whether the individual is guided by moral principles.
Q:
Describe 3 ways criminality was seen in the past.
A:
1. Crime once seen as a conscious act against the will of  God.
2. Crime also seen as an unnatural act influenced by the devil.
3. As a result, punishments were harsh and physical, to remove evil spirits from the body (Vold et al., 1998).
Morality and Social Control - Forensic Psychology

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