Physiology at University Of Cape Town | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Physiology an der University of Cape Town

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Where is motility due to skeletal muscle?

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oral cavity, pharynx, superior portion of esophagus, and last portion of
large intestine

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PLASMA WATER GAIN

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 If plasma has gained water
 Hydrostatic pressure increases;
makes plasma hypotonic by
diluting it; decreases osmotic
pressure
 Both situations—higher
hydrostatic pressure and lower
osmotic pressure—cause water
to move out of plasma and into
interstitial fluid
 Increases hydrostatic pressure
and decreases osmotic
pressure of interstitial fluid, both
of which drive water into
cytosol; cell swells

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN


 Electrolytes

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 Have greater osmotic power than non-electrolytes
 Determine the chemical and physical reactions of cells

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upper esophageal sphincter

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 At junction of pharynx and
esophagus, muscularis externa is
modified into a sphincter called
upper esophageal sphincter;
controls passage of bolus into
esophagus

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN


Solute composition of plasma and IF

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is similar
 main difference in composition is in protein content
 plasma has a much higher protein content than IF (with virtually no proteins

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Three major functions of the mucosa

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 Secretion of mucus
 Absorption of the end products of
digestion
 Protection against infectious
disease
Refer to Anatomy Lecture
21

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Structure and function of the epithelial lining

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 Mucosal epithelium is simple or stratified
• Depending on location, function, and stresses
 Oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus, anal
canal
• Mechanical stresses
• Lined by stratified squamous epithelium
 Stomach, small intestine, and most of
large intestine
• Absorption
• Simple columnar epithelium with mucous cells

 The mucus secretions:
 Protect digestive organs from enzymatic
digestion
 Ease food along the tract
 Stomach and small intestine
mucosa contain:
 Enzyme-secreting cells
 Hormone-secreting cells (making them
endocrine and digestive organs)

 Enteroendocrine cells
• Are scattered among columnar
cells of digestive epithelium
• Secrete hormones that:
• Coordinate activities of the
digestive tract and accessory
glands
 Folding increases surface
area for absorption
• Longitudinal folds, disappear as
digestive tract fills
• Permanent transverse folds
(plicae circulares)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Two layers of muscles in the muscularis externa in the esophagus 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

 superior third is composed of skeletal
muscle
 middle third is a mixture of skeletal
and smooth muscle
 inferior third is composed of smooth
muscle

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Characteristics of oesophagus

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

 Muscular tube – pharynx to stomach
 Approximately 25 cm long
 Primary functions of esophagus are propulsion
and a small amount of secretion of mostly
mucus
 During swallowing, skeletal muscle and smooth
muscle of muscularis undergo peristalsis;
pushes bolus inferiorly
 Thick esophageal epithelium protects
esophagus from abrasion by food but also
prevents any significant absorption from taking
place
 Mucosa and submucosa in longitudinal folds
when oesophagus empty – flatten out during
food transit
37

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Structure and function of the submucosa

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 Is a layer of dense, irregular connective tissue
 Surrounds muscularis mucosae
 Has large blood vessels and lymphatic vessels
 Contains nerve network known as submucosal
plexus
• Innervates mucosa and submucosa
 May contain exocrine glands
• Secrete buffers and enzymes into digestive tract

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Structure and function of the muscularis externa

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

 Smooth muscle
 In most areas consists of two layers
 Circular layer
• Inner layer
• Contraction decreases diameter of lumen
 Longitudinal layer
• Outer layer
• Contraction shortens the tube
 Contractile activity produces propulsive
and mixing movements
 Myenteric plexus
 Lies between the two muscle layers

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Mucous cells

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• Mucous cells, at the base, or neck, of
each gastric pit, actively divide, replacing
superficial cells

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Q:

Where is motility due to skeletal muscle?

A:

oral cavity, pharynx, superior portion of esophagus, and last portion of
large intestine

Q:


PLASMA WATER GAIN

A:

 If plasma has gained water
 Hydrostatic pressure increases;
makes plasma hypotonic by
diluting it; decreases osmotic
pressure
 Both situations—higher
hydrostatic pressure and lower
osmotic pressure—cause water
to move out of plasma and into
interstitial fluid
 Increases hydrostatic pressure
and decreases osmotic
pressure of interstitial fluid, both
of which drive water into
cytosol; cell swells

Q:


 Electrolytes

A:

 Have greater osmotic power than non-electrolytes
 Determine the chemical and physical reactions of cells

Q:

upper esophageal sphincter

A:

 At junction of pharynx and
esophagus, muscularis externa is
modified into a sphincter called
upper esophageal sphincter;
controls passage of bolus into
esophagus

Q:


Solute composition of plasma and IF

A:


is similar
 main difference in composition is in protein content
 plasma has a much higher protein content than IF (with virtually no proteins

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Three major functions of the mucosa

A:

 Secretion of mucus
 Absorption of the end products of
digestion
 Protection against infectious
disease
Refer to Anatomy Lecture
21

Q:

Structure and function of the epithelial lining

A:

 Mucosal epithelium is simple or stratified
• Depending on location, function, and stresses
 Oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus, anal
canal
• Mechanical stresses
• Lined by stratified squamous epithelium
 Stomach, small intestine, and most of
large intestine
• Absorption
• Simple columnar epithelium with mucous cells

 The mucus secretions:
 Protect digestive organs from enzymatic
digestion
 Ease food along the tract
 Stomach and small intestine
mucosa contain:
 Enzyme-secreting cells
 Hormone-secreting cells (making them
endocrine and digestive organs)

 Enteroendocrine cells
• Are scattered among columnar
cells of digestive epithelium
• Secrete hormones that:
• Coordinate activities of the
digestive tract and accessory
glands
 Folding increases surface
area for absorption
• Longitudinal folds, disappear as
digestive tract fills
• Permanent transverse folds
(plicae circulares)

Q:

Two layers of muscles in the muscularis externa in the esophagus 

A:

 superior third is composed of skeletal
muscle
 middle third is a mixture of skeletal
and smooth muscle
 inferior third is composed of smooth
muscle

Q:

Characteristics of oesophagus

A:

 Muscular tube – pharynx to stomach
 Approximately 25 cm long
 Primary functions of esophagus are propulsion
and a small amount of secretion of mostly
mucus
 During swallowing, skeletal muscle and smooth
muscle of muscularis undergo peristalsis;
pushes bolus inferiorly
 Thick esophageal epithelium protects
esophagus from abrasion by food but also
prevents any significant absorption from taking
place
 Mucosa and submucosa in longitudinal folds
when oesophagus empty – flatten out during
food transit
37

Q:

Structure and function of the submucosa

A:

 Is a layer of dense, irregular connective tissue
 Surrounds muscularis mucosae
 Has large blood vessels and lymphatic vessels
 Contains nerve network known as submucosal
plexus
• Innervates mucosa and submucosa
 May contain exocrine glands
• Secrete buffers and enzymes into digestive tract

Q:

Structure and function of the muscularis externa

A:

 Smooth muscle
 In most areas consists of two layers
 Circular layer
• Inner layer
• Contraction decreases diameter of lumen
 Longitudinal layer
• Outer layer
• Contraction shortens the tube
 Contractile activity produces propulsive
and mixing movements
 Myenteric plexus
 Lies between the two muscle layers

Q:

Mucous cells

A:

• Mucous cells, at the base, or neck, of
each gastric pit, actively divide, replacing
superficial cells

Physiology

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