Family Med at University of Cape Coast

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SPIKES model

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Impact of chronic diseases on patients

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Impact of chronic illnesses on family
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Factors that predict adherence

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Reasons for non-adherence

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 NON-BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH

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Factors influencing the distribution of health and disease
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Non-biological determinants of health assessment methods


   

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The order in which the factors of prevention disappear

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Levels of disease prevention

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The epidemiologic tetrad


   
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ROLE OF THE FP IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE


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Exemplary flashcards for Family Med at the University of Cape Coast on StudySmarter:

Family Med

SPIKES model
a six-step protocol

S Setting/setup (Getting started)
P Perception (What patient knows)
I Invitation (How much patient wants to know)
K Knowledge (Sharing the information)
E Emotion (responding to patients and family feelings)
S Summarize (Planning and follow up)

Family Med

Impact of chronic diseases on patients
Changes in self-perception

Trying to cope by wishful thinking or by abusing drugs or alcohol

Challenging Doctors and questioning their knowledge

Difficulty in developing and maintaining relationships with healthcare providers

Feelings of loss of control

Family Med

Impact of chronic illnesses on family
Relationship with spouse changes due to role change

Could experience strain due to lack of understanding and support

Changes that result may affect relationship with children

Couples experiencing issues due to draining of one party by a child's chronic illness

Financial, emotional and social strain and burden


Family Med

Factors that predict adherence
Disease characteristics (Side effects of meds, duration and complexity of treatment)
Personal characteristics (age, gender, emotional factors, personality and personal beliefs)
Environmental factors (Economic, social support and cultural norms)
Practitioner-Patient Interaction (Communication, time spent waiting and the practitioners personal characteristics)

Family Med

Reasons for non-adherence
  • Difficult lifestyle changes
  • Problems inherent in hearing and heeding physicians advise
  • The optimistic bias of being spared the grave
  • Inconveniennce
  • Lack of access
  • Financial constrains
  • Side effects
  • Psychological challenges

Family Med

 NON-BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
Race
Gender
Economic status
Social status
Culture and religion
Occupation
Environmental facors(war famine, natural disasters)

Family Med

Factors influencing the distribution of health and disease
Quality of care 
Access to care
Inequities
Different underlying health statuses due to exposures and opportunities



   

Family Med

Non-biological determinants of health assessment methods


   
Gini coefficient (between 0 and 1 according to increasing inequality)

Poverty Rates

Impact of Ill Health

Availability of services (Dr/Nurse to pt ratio)

Measurement of literacy rates

Economic indicators

Family Med

The order in which the factors of prevention disappear
Tertiary
Secondary
Primary
Primordial, social environment, job opportunities, education.

Family Med

Levels of disease prevention
Primordial
This deals with removing the risk factors that will influence the exposure to causal agents. It does this through the use of policies, improving social factors, and increasing education.

Primary prevention:
This deals with preventing exposure to the causal agent, or removing the possibility for the disease to occur. It is targeted at healthy people and looks at intervening at the susceptibility stage of a health problem.
It does this through immunisation, health promotion (education, media campaigns, etc.), and specific protection (chemoprophylaxis, use of specific nutrients/supplements, control of environmental hazards, protection against environmental hazards)

Secondary prevention:
This deals with early detection and treatment of individuals who have been exposed to the causal agent in question. It seeks to restore health by seeking out unrecognised disease and treating it before irreversible pathological changes take place. Basically, it looks at the subclinical stage.                                                
It does this mainly through screening exercises and adequate treatment for detected cases. Some schools of thought acknowledge the overlap between secondary and tertiary prevention methods.
                                               
Tertiary prevention: This deals with reducing further impairment, disability and death in response to an
already existing medical condition which has begun cause symptoms in an individual.
This targets the clinical stage of the disease.
It does this through treatment and rehabilitation.

Quaternary prevention
This deals with the post-clinical phase and individuals with incurable chronic diseases. It aims at providing palliative care and also, doing extensive research.




Family Med

The epidemiologic tetrad


   
  • environment
  • host
  • vector
  • time

   

Family Med

ROLE OF THE FP IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE


Advocacy: FP are expected to be advocates of health policy makers


Training: Improve upon the quality of health care through mentorship of team members


Supervision: Leader of the PHC team (Levels A, B, & C). This is a necessary skill to lead the team successfully.


Research: Provide evidence-based answers to nagging clinico-administrative issues


Monitoring and evaluation: Scientific assessment of the processes and outcomes of the clinico-administrative programs with feedback aimed at improving the processes and outcomes

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Familie at

Leibniz Universität Hannover

Familienrecht at

Hochschule für Rechtspflege Schwetzingen

MED AT at

Semmelweis University of Medical Sciences

MED TERM at

LMU München

family med at

Pomeranian Academy of Medicine in Szczecin

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