PSYC 309 - Language at University Of British Columbia | Flashcards & Summaries

Select your language

Suggested languages for you:
Log In Start studying!

Lernmaterialien für PSYC 309 - Language an der University of British Columbia

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen PSYC 309 - Language Kurs an der University of British Columbia zu.

TESTE DEIN WISSEN

​Definition of Language 


hierarchical vs. rule-based

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A system using sounds and symbols that enables us to express our feelings, thoughts, ideas, and experiences 


Hierarchical: 

- basic components to form larger structures

- phonemes (smallest possible sound component)

- morphemes (smallest possible meaningful component)

- Prosody (pitch and rhythm)

Rule-based: 

- syntactic rules (grammatical and phonological)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Modern Study of Language 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Psycholinguistic: psych. study of language 

- Lexicon: mental dictionary

- Semantics: meaning of language 

- lexical semantics: meaning of specific words 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Human advantage

- M. Dax 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- similar observations 25 years earlier 

- "Broca's area"

- The human brain is asymmetrical; left is bigger 

- left brain damage in birds reduces song features 90%, while right brain damage reduces 10% 

- big left hemisphere = more language? 

-> no same asymmetry in non-linguistic species

-> non-human primates are pre-linguistic humans   

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Human advantage 

- Physical ability 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- speaking requires precise control of breathing and vocal apparatus

- chimps and other non-human primates do not have the physical ability to vocalize as humans do

- hypoglossal nerve controls tongue  

- non-human primates have smaller hypoglossal nerve 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Gazzangia and Le Doux Example 1 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- split brain patient shown picture of snow to left visual field (right hemisphere)

Task: choose a card with associated image

​- patient could not verbally report scene, but hand eventually chose card with a shovel 

- right hand (left hemisphere) chose cards randomly 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Left hemisphere is a 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

loud mouth

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Language and Music 

- possibilities 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- before symbolic language, humans likely had the musical ability, maybe musical communication

- possibilities: 

1. music is an epiphenomenon of language ability

2. language is an epiphenomenon of music ability 

3. "musilanguage" developed first, then became more symbolic over time 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Language and Music 

- support for musilanguage hypothesis 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- syntax of music is simpler, fewer rules

- modern language itself is musical (prosody and rhythm )

- newborns and infants prefer "baby talk", respond to prosody before hard linguistic syntax

- newborns also have a preference for rhythm and tone of mother's language vs. other languages


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Other origins of Language

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- gesture communication

-> David McNeil studies (videotaped conversations)

-> while speaking, hand gestures begin before corresponding words (but slowed down to match)

-> when speech errors occur, hand movements still suggest correct meaning 

- restricting hand movements reduced fluency of speech (more pauses) 


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Summary of Origins 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- humans started using language 40-80k years ago 

- capacity for music predates language in historical (phylogenetic) terms 

- capacity for music precedes language learning in developmental (ontogenetic terms)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Is Language Arbitrary?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- music is grounded in emotion, while language is grounded in meaning, which then creates emotion 

MUSIC -> Emotion -> Meaning 

LANGUAGE -> Meaning -> Emotion 


- language might be strongly rooted in arbitrary meaning than music, but not totally

- language is not always arbitrary

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How does the mind process words?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- words in lexicon (mental dictionary) vary by word frequency

- word frequency effect: faster response to common words

- word perception guided by context

​- word perception guided by transitional probabilities (speech segmentation; saffran)

Lösung ausblenden
  • 10360 Karteikarten
  • 347 Studierende
  • 2 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen PSYC 309 - Language Kurs an der University of British Columbia - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

​Definition of Language 


hierarchical vs. rule-based

A:

A system using sounds and symbols that enables us to express our feelings, thoughts, ideas, and experiences 


Hierarchical: 

- basic components to form larger structures

- phonemes (smallest possible sound component)

- morphemes (smallest possible meaningful component)

- Prosody (pitch and rhythm)

Rule-based: 

- syntactic rules (grammatical and phonological)

Q:

Modern Study of Language 

A:

- Psycholinguistic: psych. study of language 

- Lexicon: mental dictionary

- Semantics: meaning of language 

- lexical semantics: meaning of specific words 

Q:

Human advantage

- M. Dax 

A:

- similar observations 25 years earlier 

- "Broca's area"

- The human brain is asymmetrical; left is bigger 

- left brain damage in birds reduces song features 90%, while right brain damage reduces 10% 

- big left hemisphere = more language? 

-> no same asymmetry in non-linguistic species

-> non-human primates are pre-linguistic humans   

Q:

Human advantage 

- Physical ability 

A:

- speaking requires precise control of breathing and vocal apparatus

- chimps and other non-human primates do not have the physical ability to vocalize as humans do

- hypoglossal nerve controls tongue  

- non-human primates have smaller hypoglossal nerve 

Q:

Gazzangia and Le Doux Example 1 

A:

- split brain patient shown picture of snow to left visual field (right hemisphere)

Task: choose a card with associated image

​- patient could not verbally report scene, but hand eventually chose card with a shovel 

- right hand (left hemisphere) chose cards randomly 

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Left hemisphere is a 

A:

loud mouth

Q:

Language and Music 

- possibilities 

A:

- before symbolic language, humans likely had the musical ability, maybe musical communication

- possibilities: 

1. music is an epiphenomenon of language ability

2. language is an epiphenomenon of music ability 

3. "musilanguage" developed first, then became more symbolic over time 

Q:

Language and Music 

- support for musilanguage hypothesis 

A:

- syntax of music is simpler, fewer rules

- modern language itself is musical (prosody and rhythm )

- newborns and infants prefer "baby talk", respond to prosody before hard linguistic syntax

- newborns also have a preference for rhythm and tone of mother's language vs. other languages


Q:

Other origins of Language

A:

- gesture communication

-> David McNeil studies (videotaped conversations)

-> while speaking, hand gestures begin before corresponding words (but slowed down to match)

-> when speech errors occur, hand movements still suggest correct meaning 

- restricting hand movements reduced fluency of speech (more pauses) 


Q:

Summary of Origins 

A:

- humans started using language 40-80k years ago 

- capacity for music predates language in historical (phylogenetic) terms 

- capacity for music precedes language learning in developmental (ontogenetic terms)

Q:

Is Language Arbitrary?

A:

- music is grounded in emotion, while language is grounded in meaning, which then creates emotion 

MUSIC -> Emotion -> Meaning 

LANGUAGE -> Meaning -> Emotion 


- language might be strongly rooted in arbitrary meaning than music, but not totally

- language is not always arbitrary

Q:

How does the mind process words?

A:

- words in lexicon (mental dictionary) vary by word frequency

- word frequency effect: faster response to common words

- word perception guided by context

​- word perception guided by transitional probabilities (speech segmentation; saffran)

PSYC 309 - Language

Erstelle und finde Lernmaterialien auf StudySmarter.

Greife kostenlos auf tausende geteilte Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Altklausuren und mehr zu.

Jetzt loslegen

Das sind die beliebtesten PSYC 309 - Language Kurse im gesamten StudySmarter Universum

Languages

Lindenwood University

Zum Kurs
Language

University of Amsterdam

Zum Kurs
language test

Université Claude Bernard (Lyon I)

Zum Kurs
language dev

International Islamic University

Zum Kurs
Psyco Langage

Université de Liège

Zum Kurs

Die all-in-one Lernapp für Studierende

Greife auf Millionen geteilter Lernmaterialien der StudySmarter Community zu
Kostenlos anmelden PSYC 309 - Language
Erstelle Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen mit den StudySmarter Tools
Kostenlos loslegen PSYC 309 - Language