POLI 367B Final at University Of British Columbia | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für POLI 367B Final an der University of British Columbia

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
According to classical realists international transformation only happens when….
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Polarities shift (can shift to bi, multi, or unipolar) 
2. New technological advancements develop (to Morgenthau the only development has been nuclear power)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
core ideas of Marxism
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • the world moves through historical phases; we cannot freeze any part of history 
  • capitalism does not equal all markets of exchange 
  • capitalism is disabling as it distorts actual social possibilities 
  • class divisions important 
  • theory and practice should not be mutually exclusive 
  • Everything is commercial 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Dependency theory
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • based on the core periphery idea 
    • exists between developed and developing countries, but also within developing nations 
    • similar to Marxism, but different as there is no class divisions mentioned
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What do all Realists have in common?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • The international system is a self help system; states are concerned only with themselves and act in self interest
  • world politics is about power, war, and security 
  • the world is anarchical 
  • Actors are rational 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are key differences between realism and neorealism?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
-Classical realists see power as a means in and of itself; neorealists see power as the means to security 
-Classical realists assume the desire for power is rooted in human behaviour; neorealists believe that states desire power due to the structure of the international system
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Offensive vs defensive neorealists
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
-Offensive: believe there is no such thing as too much power; states should consolidate as much power as possible. states may want to go to war due to power consolidation, but ultimately more is better
  • key offensive neorealist: Mearshimer

-Defensive: states should taper their appetite for power; if a state consolidates too much power they will be humbled because of it. balancing can occur when states assume an offensive approach 
  • key defensive neorealist: Waltz
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
what is the balance of power? what is balancing? what is the offence-defence balance?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Balance of power: powerful states will automatically balance within the international system; almost a natural equilibrium. When one state gains power, others will lose power (and vice versa)

Balancing: when a threatened state accepts the burden of deterring an adversary and commits resources to achieve that goal; intentional collection of power to deter others 

Offence-defence balance: determines how easy it will be to conquer another state or defeat a defender in battler; if the balance favours the defender, war is unlikely; if the balance favours the offender, war is likely
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Thucydides and his relation to Realisms
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Thucydides important to both realism and neorealism, but mostly neorealism 


Neorealist assumptions within the melian dialogue:
  • sparta went to war because of fear of athens 
  • Athens consolidated too much power in an offensive approach; then were humbled as they lost the war 
  • Athens saw a change in the enemy because of their power; it intimidated Sparta 
  • Security was the ultimate goal

Realist assumptions within the melian dialogue:
  • Athens lost the war as they modernized too much; Sparta won because they stayed with traditional values
  • Athens wanted power simply because it is the nature of great powers 
  • wanted security 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the 2 big myths of IR according to Carvahlo?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The myth of 1648:
  • the myth that the Westphalian system created state sovereignty as well as the international system
  • considered detrimental as it provides a distorted view of how the sovereign state system formed 
    • assumes it is totally Westphalian; but sovereignty existed before this (ex: Indigenous forms of sovereignty, Asian styles, city-states)
  • too rigidly statist 
  • highly eurocentric - ignores other culturally takes of sovereignty that existed before Europe 
  • state sovereignty may have been new with 1648, but sovereignty itself was not born here 


The myth of 1919:
  • detrimental for 4 reasons:
    • presents IR as ahistorical 
    • leaves out certain theoretical takes about how the world operates 
    • glosses over eurocentrism as it embraces history as inevitable progression in an anglo-American lens 
    • Assumes that IR underwent a virgin birth with WW1
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Why do we have crises according to Carr?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- mainly, because we do not understand how the world actually works; theorists like to assess things without any real knowledge of how the world operates

- idealism can be dangerous (ie: Chamberlain trusting Hitler)

- it is only when the utopian view breaks down that science can emerge 

- Carr thinks we need a blend of idealism and realism; either alone is dangerous but together they work 

- it is okay to strive for peace, but we need to understand the world first 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Why is IR so American according to Hoffman?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Degree that IR is modelled after natural sciences 
  • importance of naturalism (non natural sciences trying to be natural)
  • embedded in liberal individualism 
  • very close link between academics and politics 
  • policy relevant research is politically funded 
  • mass education system allowing for specialization 
  • America’s world dominance after WW2 allowed for them to take the dominant theoretical approach 
  • Bretton Woods system very American 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are 5 core assumptions of neorealism?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
5 key neorealist assumptions:

  • states are the main players in the intl. system 
  • all states have military capabilities 
  • main goal is survival and security 
  • states are uncertain with each other 
  • states are rational actors 
Lösung ausblenden
  • 10120 Karteikarten
  • 330 Studierende
  • 2 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen POLI 367B Final Kurs an der University of British Columbia - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
According to classical realists international transformation only happens when….
A:
1. Polarities shift (can shift to bi, multi, or unipolar) 
2. New technological advancements develop (to Morgenthau the only development has been nuclear power)
Q:
core ideas of Marxism
A:
  • the world moves through historical phases; we cannot freeze any part of history 
  • capitalism does not equal all markets of exchange 
  • capitalism is disabling as it distorts actual social possibilities 
  • class divisions important 
  • theory and practice should not be mutually exclusive 
  • Everything is commercial 

Q:
Dependency theory
A:
  • based on the core periphery idea 
    • exists between developed and developing countries, but also within developing nations 
    • similar to Marxism, but different as there is no class divisions mentioned
Q:
What do all Realists have in common?
A:
  • The international system is a self help system; states are concerned only with themselves and act in self interest
  • world politics is about power, war, and security 
  • the world is anarchical 
  • Actors are rational 
Q:
What are key differences between realism and neorealism?
A:
-Classical realists see power as a means in and of itself; neorealists see power as the means to security 
-Classical realists assume the desire for power is rooted in human behaviour; neorealists believe that states desire power due to the structure of the international system
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Offensive vs defensive neorealists
A:
-Offensive: believe there is no such thing as too much power; states should consolidate as much power as possible. states may want to go to war due to power consolidation, but ultimately more is better
  • key offensive neorealist: Mearshimer

-Defensive: states should taper their appetite for power; if a state consolidates too much power they will be humbled because of it. balancing can occur when states assume an offensive approach 
  • key defensive neorealist: Waltz
Q:
what is the balance of power? what is balancing? what is the offence-defence balance?
A:
Balance of power: powerful states will automatically balance within the international system; almost a natural equilibrium. When one state gains power, others will lose power (and vice versa)

Balancing: when a threatened state accepts the burden of deterring an adversary and commits resources to achieve that goal; intentional collection of power to deter others 

Offence-defence balance: determines how easy it will be to conquer another state or defeat a defender in battler; if the balance favours the defender, war is unlikely; if the balance favours the offender, war is likely
Q:
Thucydides and his relation to Realisms
A:
- Thucydides important to both realism and neorealism, but mostly neorealism 


Neorealist assumptions within the melian dialogue:
  • sparta went to war because of fear of athens 
  • Athens consolidated too much power in an offensive approach; then were humbled as they lost the war 
  • Athens saw a change in the enemy because of their power; it intimidated Sparta 
  • Security was the ultimate goal

Realist assumptions within the melian dialogue:
  • Athens lost the war as they modernized too much; Sparta won because they stayed with traditional values
  • Athens wanted power simply because it is the nature of great powers 
  • wanted security 
Q:
What are the 2 big myths of IR according to Carvahlo?
A:
The myth of 1648:
  • the myth that the Westphalian system created state sovereignty as well as the international system
  • considered detrimental as it provides a distorted view of how the sovereign state system formed 
    • assumes it is totally Westphalian; but sovereignty existed before this (ex: Indigenous forms of sovereignty, Asian styles, city-states)
  • too rigidly statist 
  • highly eurocentric - ignores other culturally takes of sovereignty that existed before Europe 
  • state sovereignty may have been new with 1648, but sovereignty itself was not born here 


The myth of 1919:
  • detrimental for 4 reasons:
    • presents IR as ahistorical 
    • leaves out certain theoretical takes about how the world operates 
    • glosses over eurocentrism as it embraces history as inevitable progression in an anglo-American lens 
    • Assumes that IR underwent a virgin birth with WW1
Q:
Why do we have crises according to Carr?
A:
- mainly, because we do not understand how the world actually works; theorists like to assess things without any real knowledge of how the world operates

- idealism can be dangerous (ie: Chamberlain trusting Hitler)

- it is only when the utopian view breaks down that science can emerge 

- Carr thinks we need a blend of idealism and realism; either alone is dangerous but together they work 

- it is okay to strive for peace, but we need to understand the world first 

Q:
Why is IR so American according to Hoffman?
A:
  • Degree that IR is modelled after natural sciences 
  • importance of naturalism (non natural sciences trying to be natural)
  • embedded in liberal individualism 
  • very close link between academics and politics 
  • policy relevant research is politically funded 
  • mass education system allowing for specialization 
  • America’s world dominance after WW2 allowed for them to take the dominant theoretical approach 
  • Bretton Woods system very American 
Q:
What are 5 core assumptions of neorealism?
A:
5 key neorealist assumptions:

  • states are the main players in the intl. system 
  • all states have military capabilities 
  • main goal is survival and security 
  • states are uncertain with each other 
  • states are rational actors 
POLI 367B Final

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