Muscles at University Of Brighton | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Muscles an der University of Brighton

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Nerve impulses arriving at the presynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction
result in shortening of sarcomeres.  Describe how.


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
•    Entry of calcium ions (presynaptic membrane);
•    Vesicles fuse with membrane / exocytosis /release NETS;
•    Neurotransmitter diffuses;
•    Binds to receptors, postsynaptic / membrane / muscle membrane;
•    Depolarisation / sodium ions enter;
•    Release of calcium ions (from within the muscle);
•    Removes tropomyosin / bind to troponin;
•    Exposing binding sites on the actin;
•    Cross bridge formation / myosin binds;
•    Myosin head moves / pulls the actin along;
•    Rachet mechanism / description /detach and reattach;  
•    ATP hydrolase activated;  


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain the role of tropomyosin in muscle contraction.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
In relaxed muscle tropomyosin covers binding site; Tropomyosin is attached to troponin. Calcium ions bind to troponin which causes tropomyosin to move from binding site allowing myosin to bind to actin to form cross-bridges.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
A muscle fibres contracts when it is stimulated by a motor neurone. Describe how transmission occurs across the synapses between a motor neurone and a muscle fibre
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Calcium ion channel proteins open.
- calcium ions enter the neurone by facilitated diffusion.
- Vesicles move towards/ fuse with the pre synaptic membrane
- Exocytosis of transmitter substance of acetylcholine
- Diffusion of transmitter across the cleft
- This binds to receptors in the post synaptic membrane
- Sodium ion channels open sky enter the post synaptic side
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the part played by myosin in myofibril contraction
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Myosin head binds to actin and moves actin past
- Myosin detaches from actin and resets and moves further along the actin
- This uses ATP
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Mitochondria in muscles contain many cristae. Explain the advantage of this
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Larger surface area for electron carrier system/ oxidative phosphorylation.
- Provides ATP/ energy for contraction
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Muscle contraction requires atp. What are the advantages of using aerobic rather than anaerobic respiration to provide atp in a long distance race?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Aerobic respiration releases more energy and produces more atp.
- Lactate is not accumulated.
- Cramps and muscle fatigue is avoided.
- Carbon dioxide is easily removed from the body by breathing
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the part played by tropomyosin in myofibril contraction
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Moves out the way when calcium ions bind to it.
- This allows myosin and actin to bind forming a cross bridge
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe fast twitch muscle fibres
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Used for rapid strong  contractions.
- Phosphocreatine used up rapidly during contraction to make ATP.
- Anaerobic respiration involved
- ATP used to reform phosphocreatine 
- Many phosphocreatine in fast fibres
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe slow twitch muscle fibres
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
have lots of mitochondria/ (slow fibres) respire aerobically;
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the sliding filament theory
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
•    Attachment/cross bridges between actin and myosin;
•    ‘Power stroke’ / movement of myosin heads / pulling of actin;
•    Detachment of myosin heads;
•    Myosin heads move back/to original position / ‘recovery stroke’;


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the function of calcium ions in muscle contraction.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
•    Binding/changing shape/removing tropomyosin;                    
•    Exposes actin binding sites;
•    Myosin head attaches/cross-bridge formation;    
•    Activates ATP hydrolase;    


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
People who have a disease produce less atp than healthy people. As a result, they aren’t able to maintain strong muscle contraction during exercise. Explain why referring to the sliding filament theory
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
•ATP is needed for:
-Cross bridges between the actin and myosin.
-the myosin pulls the actin filament and this is a power stroke.
-the myosin heads detach bc of the binding of atp.
-myosin heads move back to its original position and this is the recover stroke.
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
Nerve impulses arriving at the presynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction
result in shortening of sarcomeres.  Describe how.


A:
•    Entry of calcium ions (presynaptic membrane);
•    Vesicles fuse with membrane / exocytosis /release NETS;
•    Neurotransmitter diffuses;
•    Binds to receptors, postsynaptic / membrane / muscle membrane;
•    Depolarisation / sodium ions enter;
•    Release of calcium ions (from within the muscle);
•    Removes tropomyosin / bind to troponin;
•    Exposing binding sites on the actin;
•    Cross bridge formation / myosin binds;
•    Myosin head moves / pulls the actin along;
•    Rachet mechanism / description /detach and reattach;  
•    ATP hydrolase activated;  


Q:
Explain the role of tropomyosin in muscle contraction.

A:
In relaxed muscle tropomyosin covers binding site; Tropomyosin is attached to troponin. Calcium ions bind to troponin which causes tropomyosin to move from binding site allowing myosin to bind to actin to form cross-bridges.

Q:
A muscle fibres contracts when it is stimulated by a motor neurone. Describe how transmission occurs across the synapses between a motor neurone and a muscle fibre
A:
- Calcium ion channel proteins open.
- calcium ions enter the neurone by facilitated diffusion.
- Vesicles move towards/ fuse with the pre synaptic membrane
- Exocytosis of transmitter substance of acetylcholine
- Diffusion of transmitter across the cleft
- This binds to receptors in the post synaptic membrane
- Sodium ion channels open sky enter the post synaptic side
Q:
Describe the part played by myosin in myofibril contraction
A:
- Myosin head binds to actin and moves actin past
- Myosin detaches from actin and resets and moves further along the actin
- This uses ATP
Q:
Mitochondria in muscles contain many cristae. Explain the advantage of this
A:
- Larger surface area for electron carrier system/ oxidative phosphorylation.
- Provides ATP/ energy for contraction
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Muscle contraction requires atp. What are the advantages of using aerobic rather than anaerobic respiration to provide atp in a long distance race?
A:
- Aerobic respiration releases more energy and produces more atp.
- Lactate is not accumulated.
- Cramps and muscle fatigue is avoided.
- Carbon dioxide is easily removed from the body by breathing
Q:
Describe the part played by tropomyosin in myofibril contraction
A:
- Moves out the way when calcium ions bind to it.
- This allows myosin and actin to bind forming a cross bridge
Q:
Describe fast twitch muscle fibres
A:
- Used for rapid strong  contractions.
- Phosphocreatine used up rapidly during contraction to make ATP.
- Anaerobic respiration involved
- ATP used to reform phosphocreatine 
- Many phosphocreatine in fast fibres
Q:
Describe slow twitch muscle fibres
A:
have lots of mitochondria/ (slow fibres) respire aerobically;
Q:
Describe the sliding filament theory
A:
•    Attachment/cross bridges between actin and myosin;
•    ‘Power stroke’ / movement of myosin heads / pulling of actin;
•    Detachment of myosin heads;
•    Myosin heads move back/to original position / ‘recovery stroke’;


Q:
Describe the function of calcium ions in muscle contraction.
A:
•    Binding/changing shape/removing tropomyosin;                    
•    Exposes actin binding sites;
•    Myosin head attaches/cross-bridge formation;    
•    Activates ATP hydrolase;    


Q:
People who have a disease produce less atp than healthy people. As a result, they aren’t able to maintain strong muscle contraction during exercise. Explain why referring to the sliding filament theory
A:
•ATP is needed for:
-Cross bridges between the actin and myosin.
-the myosin pulls the actin filament and this is a power stroke.
-the myosin heads detach bc of the binding of atp.
-myosin heads move back to its original position and this is the recover stroke.
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