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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the symptoms that are associated with left-sided heart failure?
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Dyspnoea on exertion (difficulty breathing) 
Orthopnoea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea
Fatigue/Weakness
Cough with pinn frothy sputum 
Cardiogenic Wheeze

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe heart failure 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

cardiac output struggles to meet the metabolic demands of the body. 

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What causes a 2nd Degree AV Block 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

(Same as a 1st Degree)

  • Sick Sinus Syndrome
  • Athletes
  • Drugs (Digoxin)
  • Acute Myocarditis
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are common complications for heart failure
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Pleural Effusion
Acute Renal Failure
Acute decompensation of chronic heart failure:
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What causes a 1st Degree Atrial Ventricular Block 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Sick Sinus Syndrome
  • Athletes
  • Drugs (Digoxin)
  • Acute Myocarditis
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are common symptoms of Right sided heart failure
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Swelling in the legs
Distended Abdomen
Fatigue and Weakness
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the clinical features of AF
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Palpitations 
Dyspnoea
Chest Pain - red flag
Syncope - red flag


Signs
Irregular irregular pulse
Hypotension - red flag (haemodynamic instability)
Evidence of heart failure: red flag Such as pulmonary oedema
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the first line management for heart failure
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Beta-Blocker - bisoprolol
And ACEi - Ramipril 
(start both drugs one at a time) 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is an arrhythmia 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Disturbances of the cardiac rhythm.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the different types of arrhythmias ?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Bradycardias 

Sinus bradycardia

1st degree AV block

Wenckebach block phenomenon

Mobitz type 2 block

Complete AV Block

Bundle branch block 



  • Tachycardias

Superventricular tachycardias (SVTs)

AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT)

AV re-entrant tachycardia (AVRT)

Ventricular tachycardia (VT)

Ventricular fibrillation (VF)

A.F

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is caused by a sinus bradycardia? 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Extrinisic:

  • Hypothermia
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Cholestatic jaundice
  • Raise intercranial pressure
  • Beta blockers or other antiarrhythmic drugs


Intrinsic


  • Acute ischaemia or infarction of the sinus node – usually happens with patients who have had a inferior MI
  • Chronic degenerative changes causing fibrosis (Sick Sinus syndrome)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are common tachycardia conditions 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Superventricular tachycardias (SVTs)
  • AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
  • AV re-entrant tachycardia (AVRT)
  • Ventricular tachycardia (VT)
  • Ventricular fibrillation (VF)
  • A.F
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Q:
What are the symptoms that are associated with left-sided heart failure?
A:
Dyspnoea on exertion (difficulty breathing) 
Orthopnoea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea
Fatigue/Weakness
Cough with pinn frothy sputum 
Cardiogenic Wheeze

Q:

Describe heart failure 

A:

cardiac output struggles to meet the metabolic demands of the body. 

Q:

What causes a 2nd Degree AV Block 

A:

(Same as a 1st Degree)

  • Sick Sinus Syndrome
  • Athletes
  • Drugs (Digoxin)
  • Acute Myocarditis
Q:
What are common complications for heart failure
A:
Pleural Effusion
Acute Renal Failure
Acute decompensation of chronic heart failure:
Q:

What causes a 1st Degree Atrial Ventricular Block 

A:
  • Sick Sinus Syndrome
  • Athletes
  • Drugs (Digoxin)
  • Acute Myocarditis
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What are common symptoms of Right sided heart failure
A:
Swelling in the legs
Distended Abdomen
Fatigue and Weakness
Q:
What are the clinical features of AF
A:
Palpitations 
Dyspnoea
Chest Pain - red flag
Syncope - red flag


Signs
Irregular irregular pulse
Hypotension - red flag (haemodynamic instability)
Evidence of heart failure: red flag Such as pulmonary oedema
Q:
What is the first line management for heart failure
A:
Beta-Blocker - bisoprolol
And ACEi - Ramipril 
(start both drugs one at a time) 
Q:

What is an arrhythmia 

A:

Disturbances of the cardiac rhythm.

Q:

What are the different types of arrhythmias ?

A:
  • Bradycardias 

Sinus bradycardia

1st degree AV block

Wenckebach block phenomenon

Mobitz type 2 block

Complete AV Block

Bundle branch block 



  • Tachycardias

Superventricular tachycardias (SVTs)

AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT)

AV re-entrant tachycardia (AVRT)

Ventricular tachycardia (VT)

Ventricular fibrillation (VF)

A.F

Q:

What is caused by a sinus bradycardia? 

A:

- Extrinisic:

  • Hypothermia
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Cholestatic jaundice
  • Raise intercranial pressure
  • Beta blockers or other antiarrhythmic drugs


Intrinsic


  • Acute ischaemia or infarction of the sinus node – usually happens with patients who have had a inferior MI
  • Chronic degenerative changes causing fibrosis (Sick Sinus syndrome)
Q:

What are common tachycardia conditions 

A:
  • Superventricular tachycardias (SVTs)
  • AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
  • AV re-entrant tachycardia (AVRT)
  • Ventricular tachycardia (VT)
  • Ventricular fibrillation (VF)
  • A.F
CARDIOLOGY - PALPITATIONS

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