CAS at University of Basel

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What is Fluoroscopy?

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CAS definition in a nutshell:

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How can CAS systems be classified?

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Learning-Assistant with spaced repetition algorithm

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Overview of tracking modalities

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What is articulated arm technology?

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How does optical tracking work?

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Inertial Mesurement unit (IMU). How does it work?

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Exemplary flashcards for CAS at the University of Basel on StudySmarter:

What is machine vision?

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What is the definition of projectivity?

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What is the main idea to find corners?

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What is dense matching?

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How can we find scale-invariant interest regions that match with exhaustive search?

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Exemplary flashcards for CAS at the University of Basel on StudySmarter:

CAS

What is Fluoroscopy?

Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique commonly used by physicians to obtain real time images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of a fluoroscope. It is used to visualise:

  • organ motion
  • ingested or injected contrast agent
  • catherised interventions (inserting stents, RF blation,...)
  • Computer-assisted Surgery


CAS

CAS definition in a nutshell:

CAS supports the surgeon in performing surgicasl intervention by providing additional visual, ... feedback about the surgical procedure.

CAS

How can CAS systems be classified?

  • Imaging Modality (CT, Fluo, US, MR)
  • Navigation Support (AR, Screen, ...)
  • Tracking Modality (Optical, magnetic,..)

CAS

Overview of tracking modalities

  • Articulated Arm technology
  • Acoustic Tracking
  • Optical Tracking
  • Electromagnetic Tracking
  • Fibre Shape Sensing
  • Inertial Measurement Unit
  • Machine Vision

CAS

What is articulated arm technology?

Historically the first navigation support.

Calibrated angle and length of segments helps to determine the position of the end tip of the arm's probe.

It can only track one object, so the patient had to be rigidly fixed.


Not used alot anymore, as the cons outweigh the pros

CAS

How does optical tracking work?

  • Detects infrared-emitting or retro-reflective markers in space
  • Sensor calculates the position and orientation of the tool based on the information the position sensor receives from these markers
  • Two types of markers: Active and passive

CAS

Inertial Mesurement unit (IMU). How does it work?

Basically a Gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer integrated into one sensor.

Accelerometer: Mass spring system, measures acceleration

Gyroscope: measures movement/rotation

Magnetometer: Measures the direction of the earth magnetic field


IMU require initializing (alignment) at a known point in order to provide a reference from which the system measures.


CAS

What is machine vision?

Machine vision uses a computer that attempts to directly understand the content of images sent to it by means of a video camera. Basically tries to measure the environment. Simplified as it is a hard task.

Triangulation to determine position, and multiple markers to determine orientation.

Accuracy is dependent on the target size and baseline of the triangulation.

In medical applications, the environment e.g room lighting can be difficult to control and may reduce the effectiveness of this technology.

CAS

What is the definition of projectivity?

A projectivity is an invertible mapping h from P^2 to itself such that three points x1, x2 and x3 lie on the same line if and if only h(x1), h(x2 and h(x3) are on one line too.


-> Collineation / projective transformation / homography

-> Projectivities from a group called the projective linear group


A mapping h: P^2 -> P^2 is a projectivity if and only if there exists a non singular 3x3 matrix H such that for any point in P^2 represented by a vector x it is true that h(x) = Hx

CAS

What is the main idea to find corners?

Exactly at the corner, the gradient is ill-defined. However, a corner is normally made of two edges, so in the region around the corner, the gradient has two or more values. This means intensity changes in all directions.

CAS

What is dense matching?

In dense matching no real key points are determined. Instead, a dense grid of sample points is taken. Of each point, the local descriptor is calculated and we try to match them. This approach might be fast, but the problem is, that there will also be many points with similar local descriptors.

CAS

How can we find scale-invariant interest regions that match with exhaustive search?

Exhaustive search is a multi-scale procedure: we compare the descriptors while varying the patch size. It is computationally inefficient but possible for matching.

Prohibitive for retrieval in large databases and recognition.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Biomedical of Tissue Regeneration

Physiology

DPaC/UniBas/2020

Anatomy

Physiology

BioMaterials

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