Functions Of Organelles at University Of Aberdeen | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für functions of organelles an der University of Aberdeen

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What are the different parts of a nucleus?
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  • rough endoplasmic reticulum 
  • Nucleolus 
  • Chromatin
  • Nucleoplasm 
  • Nuclear pore 
  • Nuclear envelope 
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What is a nuclear envelope?
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Has a double membrane with fluid between that contains nuclear pores to allow substances through that controls the entry and exit of materials in and out of the nucleus
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What is a nuclear pore 
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Allows the passage of large molecules such as messenger RNA
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What is a nucleoplasm 
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Is a jelly like material that makes up the bulk of the nucleus
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What are chromosomes 
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Chromosomes in eukaryotes consist of linear DNA and histone proteins the instructions for building proteins are encoded in the sequence of bases in each chromosome which can be copied into molecules of mRNA
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What is a nucleolus 
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Is a small dense spherical region within the nucleoplasm which makes rRNA and ribosomes
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Endoplasmic reticulum 
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A series of flattened membrane bound sacs called cisternae they are continuous with outer membrane of nucleus  
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Rough endoplasmic reticulum 
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(Has ribosomes) provides a large surface area for the synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins made by the attached ribosomes using instructions encoded on molecules of mRNA and also provide a pathway for the transport of proteins to other parts of the cell
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What is a smooth endoplasmic reticulum? 
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Has no ribsomes so appears smooth and it’s function is to synthesise , store and transport lipids and also stores ions in the cell
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Mitochondria 
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Are spherical with a double membrane that controls the entry and exit of materials. The inner membrane is highly folded into a cristae , this provides a large surface area for the attachment of enzymes involved in the later stages of aerobic respiration

The central part is called the matrix which contains enzymes needed for aerobic respiration together with proteins , lipids , 70S ribsomes and mitochondrial DNA that allow the mitochondria to control the production of some of their own proteins

The synthesis of ATP in the process of aerobic respiration this requires oxygen

Metabolically active cells such as muscle and epithelial cells require lots of ATP and so will contain lots of mitochondria
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Golgi apparatus and Golgi vesicles 
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A stack of membrane bound flattened sacs called cisternae with small rounded hollow structures called vesicles

The Golgi apparatus receives proteins and lipids from rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and may modify them by chemically adding carbohydrates it also labels them so that they can be accurately sorted and sent to the correct destination

Once sorted they are transported in a vesicle which is pinched off from the ends of a Golgi cisternae these vesicles may then move to the cell surface , fuse with the cell surface membrane and release the contents e.g. hormones , enzymes or antibodies to the outside (exocytosis) 

Golgi apparatus also forms lysosomes 
The Golgi apparatus is well developed in secretory cells such as epithelial cells that line the intestines 
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Chloroplasts 
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Are found in plant cells and algae chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water 

The chloroplast envelope is a double plasma membrane that surrounds the organelle it controls what enters or leaves the organelle within the chloroplasts are membranous sacs called thylakoids (a stack of thylakoids is known as a granum) this provides a large surface area 

The chlorophyll molecules are on the thylakoid membranes and in the intergranal lamella - where the first stage of photosynthesis takes place known as the light dependent stage

Chloroplasts like mitochondria also contain circular DNA and 70s ribsomes so they can synthesise some of the proteins needed for photosynthesis 

 
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Q:
What are the different parts of a nucleus?
A:
  • rough endoplasmic reticulum 
  • Nucleolus 
  • Chromatin
  • Nucleoplasm 
  • Nuclear pore 
  • Nuclear envelope 
Q:
What is a nuclear envelope?
A:
Has a double membrane with fluid between that contains nuclear pores to allow substances through that controls the entry and exit of materials in and out of the nucleus
Q:
What is a nuclear pore 
A:
Allows the passage of large molecules such as messenger RNA
Q:
What is a nucleoplasm 
A:
Is a jelly like material that makes up the bulk of the nucleus
Q:
What are chromosomes 
A:
Chromosomes in eukaryotes consist of linear DNA and histone proteins the instructions for building proteins are encoded in the sequence of bases in each chromosome which can be copied into molecules of mRNA
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Q:
What is a nucleolus 
A:
Is a small dense spherical region within the nucleoplasm which makes rRNA and ribosomes
Q:
Endoplasmic reticulum 
A:
A series of flattened membrane bound sacs called cisternae they are continuous with outer membrane of nucleus  
Q:
Rough endoplasmic reticulum 
A:
(Has ribosomes) provides a large surface area for the synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins made by the attached ribosomes using instructions encoded on molecules of mRNA and also provide a pathway for the transport of proteins to other parts of the cell
Q:
What is a smooth endoplasmic reticulum? 
A:
Has no ribsomes so appears smooth and it’s function is to synthesise , store and transport lipids and also stores ions in the cell
Q:
Mitochondria 
A:
Are spherical with a double membrane that controls the entry and exit of materials. The inner membrane is highly folded into a cristae , this provides a large surface area for the attachment of enzymes involved in the later stages of aerobic respiration

The central part is called the matrix which contains enzymes needed for aerobic respiration together with proteins , lipids , 70S ribsomes and mitochondrial DNA that allow the mitochondria to control the production of some of their own proteins

The synthesis of ATP in the process of aerobic respiration this requires oxygen

Metabolically active cells such as muscle and epithelial cells require lots of ATP and so will contain lots of mitochondria
Q:
Golgi apparatus and Golgi vesicles 
A:
A stack of membrane bound flattened sacs called cisternae with small rounded hollow structures called vesicles

The Golgi apparatus receives proteins and lipids from rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and may modify them by chemically adding carbohydrates it also labels them so that they can be accurately sorted and sent to the correct destination

Once sorted they are transported in a vesicle which is pinched off from the ends of a Golgi cisternae these vesicles may then move to the cell surface , fuse with the cell surface membrane and release the contents e.g. hormones , enzymes or antibodies to the outside (exocytosis) 

Golgi apparatus also forms lysosomes 
The Golgi apparatus is well developed in secretory cells such as epithelial cells that line the intestines 
Q:
Chloroplasts 
A:
Are found in plant cells and algae chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water 

The chloroplast envelope is a double plasma membrane that surrounds the organelle it controls what enters or leaves the organelle within the chloroplasts are membranous sacs called thylakoids (a stack of thylakoids is known as a granum) this provides a large surface area 

The chlorophyll molecules are on the thylakoid membranes and in the intergranal lamella - where the first stage of photosynthesis takes place known as the light dependent stage

Chloroplasts like mitochondria also contain circular DNA and 70s ribsomes so they can synthesise some of the proteins needed for photosynthesis 

 
functions of organelles

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