BM2 Grammar & Phonetics at Universität Zu Köln | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für BM2 Grammar & Phonetics an der Universität zu Köln

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What are lexical categories?
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  • Have a fairly definable meaning
  • have a number of different inflectional forms
  • are open sets
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What is a category?
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  • the members of a category share important grammatical (and other) features
  • a class of expressions which are grammatically alike
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What are dependents?
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  • They are dependent of the head
  • can be further distinguished into complements and modifiers/adjuncts
  • function within a clause
  • are always phrases themselves
  • within a dependent phrase further, smaller phrases which are dependents
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What function do dependent phrases have?
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  • complement
  • modifier/ adjunct
of the head
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What are Modifiers/ adjuncts?
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  • Always optional
  • leaving the out will never result in ungrammaticality
  • can occur pre-head or post-head 
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What are adjuncts in specific?
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  • Are optional dependents of verbs only
  • not licensed by the verb
  • optional
  • not limited to a specific position in the clause (mobile)
  • less closely related to the verb than complements, but they typically belong to the VP —> they modify the predictor as the head
  • unlimited amount
  • may belong to different categories
  • in a VP more than one adjunct can appear
  • supplement —> adjuncts with supplement info
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What is licensing?
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  • high degree of selectivity
  • it determines which phrase categories can act as its complement
  • it determines which words are possible as the head of the complement and/or it determines the form of the complement
  • individual heads can license more than one kind of complement
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What are the characteristics of a canonical clause?
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  • Properties of a standard clause —> canonical clause
  • they are non-coordinate main clauses 
  • always correspond to single sentences and do not contain any coordinators such as ‘and‘
  • are positive
  • are in active voice
  • are declarative
  • present their elements in the basic order —> are structurally unmarked
  • always contain a subject and a predicate/ VP
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What are the characteristics of a subject?
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  • Complement of the head
  • doer of an action, experiencer of an event or state
  • typical category is the NP
  • with certain verbs other categories may fill the subject function
  • basic positions: in canonical clauses, the subject follows the auxiliary —> subject-auxiliary-inversion
  • if the subject is a pronoun, it is in the nominative (or subjunctive) case form
  • the number of the subjects determines the form of the verb —> subject-verb agreement
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What is the predicate?
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  • Every predictor contains a verb, which has the function of a predicator
  • is both: the Head of the VP and the Head Word of the clause as a whole
  • the verb determines what other elements are allowed to occur within the clause
  • every verb functions as the predictor of a clause
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What is the predicative complement?
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  • Can have the form of a NP or an AP
  • can never be associated with the subject of a corresponding passive clause
  • can be subjective or objective
  • can have the form of a nominative pronoun
  • does not denote a separate participant in the situation described by the clause
  • typically expresses a property that is ascribed to the entity referred to by the subject (or object) NP
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Characteristics of primary forms
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  • show tense
  • can be the only verb in a canonical clause (the predicator of a declarative main clause has to be in ine of these forms)
  • always require a subject
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Q:
What are lexical categories?
A:
  • Have a fairly definable meaning
  • have a number of different inflectional forms
  • are open sets
Q:
What is a category?
A:
  • the members of a category share important grammatical (and other) features
  • a class of expressions which are grammatically alike
Q:
What are dependents?
A:
  • They are dependent of the head
  • can be further distinguished into complements and modifiers/adjuncts
  • function within a clause
  • are always phrases themselves
  • within a dependent phrase further, smaller phrases which are dependents
Q:
What function do dependent phrases have?
A:
  • complement
  • modifier/ adjunct
of the head
Q:
What are Modifiers/ adjuncts?
A:
  • Always optional
  • leaving the out will never result in ungrammaticality
  • can occur pre-head or post-head 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What are adjuncts in specific?
A:
  • Are optional dependents of verbs only
  • not licensed by the verb
  • optional
  • not limited to a specific position in the clause (mobile)
  • less closely related to the verb than complements, but they typically belong to the VP —> they modify the predictor as the head
  • unlimited amount
  • may belong to different categories
  • in a VP more than one adjunct can appear
  • supplement —> adjuncts with supplement info
Q:
What is licensing?
A:
  • high degree of selectivity
  • it determines which phrase categories can act as its complement
  • it determines which words are possible as the head of the complement and/or it determines the form of the complement
  • individual heads can license more than one kind of complement
Q:
What are the characteristics of a canonical clause?
A:
  • Properties of a standard clause —> canonical clause
  • they are non-coordinate main clauses 
  • always correspond to single sentences and do not contain any coordinators such as ‘and‘
  • are positive
  • are in active voice
  • are declarative
  • present their elements in the basic order —> are structurally unmarked
  • always contain a subject and a predicate/ VP
Q:
What are the characteristics of a subject?
A:
  • Complement of the head
  • doer of an action, experiencer of an event or state
  • typical category is the NP
  • with certain verbs other categories may fill the subject function
  • basic positions: in canonical clauses, the subject follows the auxiliary —> subject-auxiliary-inversion
  • if the subject is a pronoun, it is in the nominative (or subjunctive) case form
  • the number of the subjects determines the form of the verb —> subject-verb agreement
Q:
What is the predicate?
A:
  • Every predictor contains a verb, which has the function of a predicator
  • is both: the Head of the VP and the Head Word of the clause as a whole
  • the verb determines what other elements are allowed to occur within the clause
  • every verb functions as the predictor of a clause
Q:
What is the predicative complement?
A:
  • Can have the form of a NP or an AP
  • can never be associated with the subject of a corresponding passive clause
  • can be subjective or objective
  • can have the form of a nominative pronoun
  • does not denote a separate participant in the situation described by the clause
  • typically expresses a property that is ascribed to the entity referred to by the subject (or object) NP
Q:
Characteristics of primary forms
A:
  • show tense
  • can be the only verb in a canonical clause (the predicator of a declarative main clause has to be in ine of these forms)
  • always require a subject
BM2 Grammar & Phonetics

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