Linguistik at Universität Passau | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Linguistik an der Universität Passau

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Morph

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  • actual phonetic form (how its is pronounced) that represents one version of a morpheme
  • ex: bugs- the "s" is pronounced z = voiced sound
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root

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cannot be analyzed in smaller parts and consist of only one lexical morpheme (run, play..)

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contrastive (vertical)

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 = paradigmatic relations

  • choice
  • or-relationship
  • x can be substituted by y

ex. yesterday can be replaced by today, tomorrow, the other day..



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the first of the language

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  • higher level
  • made of signs that by definition have a meaning (eat, house, clueless..)
  • the smallest linguistic units that carry meaning are called morphemes can be combines to larger meaningful units like words, sentences or texts
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Vocabulary

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  • lexicology: study of the vocabulary not with words as isolated elements but considering relations between elements, concerned with structures
  • lexicography: applied lexicology, the writing and compilation of dictionaries
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the second level of the language

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  • lower level
  • made of elements that don't carry meaning themselves
  • the smallest meaning differentiating units of a language = phonemes
  • r or m sound, rat -> mat 
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Was versteht man unter Induktion?


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Der Schluss vom Einzelfall auf das Allgemeine


Aus der Beobachtung eines Einzelfalles auf einen allgemeingültigen Satz schließen. Die allgemeinsten Sätze zu einem Sachverhalt sind „Allsätze”.

ex. Peter is rich. Peter is Australian = all Australians are rich (wrong)



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 Typology of signs

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  • Peirce
  • 3 modes of relation between signifier and signified:
    • iconic: resemble the real world (pictogram), relation of similarity
    • indexical: relation of contiguity (nearness) between signifier and signified, as well as the real world, relation not arbitrary
    • symbolic: conventional, arbitrary relationship between signifier and signified
    • linguistic signs are usually symbolic
  • iconic and indexical signs -> natural signs, natural connection between form and meaning
  • onomatopeia (Lautmalerei) -> imitating sounds (cuckoo)
  • considered an iconic sign
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Define the principle of semantic compositionally

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the meanings of the meanings of the lower level add up to the meaning of higher levels (words-sentence-text)

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define double articulation

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  • principle about the organization of speech and language
  • introduced by Martinet
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Formation

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  • Word formation: studies patterns on which language forms new lexical units (words)
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Coinage 

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  • invention of totally new terms (neologism)
  • either trade names (Aspirin, Kleenex ) or eponyms, that are based on the name of a person or a place like hoover, sandwich or jeans
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  • 42107 Karteikarten
  • 1115 Studierende
  • 5 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Linguistik Kurs an der Universität Passau - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Morph

A:
  • actual phonetic form (how its is pronounced) that represents one version of a morpheme
  • ex: bugs- the "s" is pronounced z = voiced sound
Q:

root

A:

cannot be analyzed in smaller parts and consist of only one lexical morpheme (run, play..)

Q:

contrastive (vertical)

A:

 = paradigmatic relations

  • choice
  • or-relationship
  • x can be substituted by y

ex. yesterday can be replaced by today, tomorrow, the other day..



Q:

the first of the language

A:
  • higher level
  • made of signs that by definition have a meaning (eat, house, clueless..)
  • the smallest linguistic units that carry meaning are called morphemes can be combines to larger meaningful units like words, sentences or texts
Q:

Vocabulary

A:
  • lexicology: study of the vocabulary not with words as isolated elements but considering relations between elements, concerned with structures
  • lexicography: applied lexicology, the writing and compilation of dictionaries
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

the second level of the language

A:
  • lower level
  • made of elements that don't carry meaning themselves
  • the smallest meaning differentiating units of a language = phonemes
  • r or m sound, rat -> mat 
Q:


Was versteht man unter Induktion?


A:


Der Schluss vom Einzelfall auf das Allgemeine


Aus der Beobachtung eines Einzelfalles auf einen allgemeingültigen Satz schließen. Die allgemeinsten Sätze zu einem Sachverhalt sind „Allsätze”.

ex. Peter is rich. Peter is Australian = all Australians are rich (wrong)



Q:

 Typology of signs

A:
  • Peirce
  • 3 modes of relation between signifier and signified:
    • iconic: resemble the real world (pictogram), relation of similarity
    • indexical: relation of contiguity (nearness) between signifier and signified, as well as the real world, relation not arbitrary
    • symbolic: conventional, arbitrary relationship between signifier and signified
    • linguistic signs are usually symbolic
  • iconic and indexical signs -> natural signs, natural connection between form and meaning
  • onomatopeia (Lautmalerei) -> imitating sounds (cuckoo)
  • considered an iconic sign
Q:

Define the principle of semantic compositionally

A:

the meanings of the meanings of the lower level add up to the meaning of higher levels (words-sentence-text)

Q:

define double articulation

A:
  • principle about the organization of speech and language
  • introduced by Martinet
Q:

Formation

A:
  • Word formation: studies patterns on which language forms new lexical units (words)
Q:

Coinage 

A:
  • invention of totally new terms (neologism)
  • either trade names (Aspirin, Kleenex ) or eponyms, that are based on the name of a person or a place like hoover, sandwich or jeans
Linguistik

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