4) Consonants And Vowels at Universität Mannheim | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für 4) Consonants and Vowels an der Universität Mannheim

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Progressive assimilation

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• Obligatory in English when certain suffixes consisting phonetically of a single consonant are added to a word; e.g. –s (sometimes spelled –es) or –ed

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  • usually extends over clauses or complete utterances (unlike tone), vital in natural speech to convey meaning, languages vary with regard to it
  • No overt signs of accentuation, pitch used to indicate mood/speaker intention/questions,…


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Intonation

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 -s suffix is added to a voiceless consonant 


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 causes the suffix to become voiceless, too: ships, cat’s, cats’, jumps, Peter’s ill)

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Elision

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• Sound that ought to be in a word is deleted: both vowels and consonants affectd

• Most common: middle plosive in a series of three consonants is deleted

• e.g. Hændkɜːtʃɪf?

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Place of articulation

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where is the sound produced, where is the obstruction, which organs of speech are used?

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Why do we need consonant classification?

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makes it easier to produce them, knowledge enhances production

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Central approximants

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  • semivowels
  • /j/ and /w/ are both approximants and vowel-like; /w/ is labial-velar; /j/ is palatal 
  •  You might call them “vowels with approximation” (but not vowels because they are non-syllabic – unlike oven etc – and occupy syllabic borders







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Name the active and passive articulator in /l/

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active: tongue

passive: alveolar ridge

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3) Allophones of L

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  1. light /l/: occurs before vowels (light, Lesley)
  2. dark /l/: velarised, tilded L, occurs before a consonant or a pause, final position (told, hill)
  3. voiceless fricative, occurs initially in a stressed syllable following /p/ and /k/ : clean, playroom
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4 parameters for consonant classification

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  1. Manner of Articulation 
  2. Voiceless vs. Voiced 
  3. Fortis vs. Lenis 
  4. Place of Articulation
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Fricatives

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produced with only a partial blockage –  the air

escapes with difficulty through a narrow passage, generating friction

 /f/ and /v/, /θ/  and /ð/, /s/ and /z/, /ʃ/  and /ʒ/, /h/


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Affricates

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combination of plosive and fricative: the sounds begin as plosives and then continue as fricatives (usually presented by two symbols, the first: plosive, the second: fricative) 

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Q:

Progressive assimilation

A:

• Obligatory in English when certain suffixes consisting phonetically of a single consonant are added to a word; e.g. –s (sometimes spelled –es) or –ed

Q:
  • usually extends over clauses or complete utterances (unlike tone), vital in natural speech to convey meaning, languages vary with regard to it
  • No overt signs of accentuation, pitch used to indicate mood/speaker intention/questions,…


A:

Intonation

Q:

 -s suffix is added to a voiceless consonant 


A:

 causes the suffix to become voiceless, too: ships, cat’s, cats’, jumps, Peter’s ill)

Q:

Elision

A:

• Sound that ought to be in a word is deleted: both vowels and consonants affectd

• Most common: middle plosive in a series of three consonants is deleted

• e.g. Hændkɜːtʃɪf?

Q:

Place of articulation

A:

where is the sound produced, where is the obstruction, which organs of speech are used?

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Q:

Why do we need consonant classification?

A:

makes it easier to produce them, knowledge enhances production

Q:

Central approximants

A:
  • semivowels
  • /j/ and /w/ are both approximants and vowel-like; /w/ is labial-velar; /j/ is palatal 
  •  You might call them “vowels with approximation” (but not vowels because they are non-syllabic – unlike oven etc – and occupy syllabic borders







Q:

Name the active and passive articulator in /l/

A:

active: tongue

passive: alveolar ridge

Q:

3) Allophones of L

A:
  1. light /l/: occurs before vowels (light, Lesley)
  2. dark /l/: velarised, tilded L, occurs before a consonant or a pause, final position (told, hill)
  3. voiceless fricative, occurs initially in a stressed syllable following /p/ and /k/ : clean, playroom
Q:

4 parameters for consonant classification

A:
  1. Manner of Articulation 
  2. Voiceless vs. Voiced 
  3. Fortis vs. Lenis 
  4. Place of Articulation
Q:

Fricatives

A:

produced with only a partial blockage –  the air

escapes with difficulty through a narrow passage, generating friction

 /f/ and /v/, /θ/  and /ð/, /s/ and /z/, /ʃ/  and /ʒ/, /h/


Q:

Affricates

A:

combination of plosive and fricative: the sounds begin as plosives and then continue as fricatives (usually presented by two symbols, the first: plosive, the second: fricative) 

4) Consonants and Vowels

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