Lernen & Gedächtnis at Universität Konstanz

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Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

Why didn’t Rescorla and Wagner try to determine the real values of the parameters c and Vmax? What approach did they use instead?

Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

The Rescorla-Wagner model shows how a few simple assumptions can be used to account for seemingly complex behavior. How does the model’s explanation of contingency illustrates this?


Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

How could the Pavlovian concepts of generalisation and counterconditioning be used to account for the success of systematic desensitisation?


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Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

How is Kamin’s concept of surprise incorporated within the Rescorla-Wagner model?

Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

How does the model account for blocking?


Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

There are two crucial tests of any theoretical model: Can it account for known phenomena and can it accurately predict new ones? What is an example of the Rescorla-Wagner model’s new predictions?


Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

How did Garcia and Knelling show that the conditioning of a stronger aversion to a taste than to a light wasn’t simply the result of greater salience of the taste as a conditioned stimulus?


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Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

Is contiguity necessary of sufficient for conditioning? What is the relevant evidence?

Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

What assumptions did Hull and Tolman share in common? Where did they disagree?

Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

What is the equation used by Rescorla and Wagner to predict learning? What does each symbol represent?


Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

How can the same equation be used to predict both conditioning and extinction?

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Can you figure out how the model could be used to account for the phenomenon of conditioned inhibition?


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Exemplary flashcards for Lernen & Gedächtnis at the Universität Konstanz on StudySmarter:

Lernen & Gedächtnis

Why didn’t Rescorla and Wagner try to determine the real values of the parameters c and Vmax? What approach did they use instead?

- till then in the history of learning the only effort to estimate parameters failed 

-> it is too long/ complex/ complicated

-> instead they used arbitrary values for the constants in the equation


Lernen & Gedächtnis

The Rescorla-Wagner model shows how a few simple assumptions can be used to account for seemingly complex behavior. How does the model’s explanation of contingency illustrates this?


 contingent A -> US………………….A -> US…………………

-> the US isn’t presented by itself (no stimulus occurs in a vacuum, there are always other stimuli)

-> better deception of contingent: AB -> US……….B -> US………..AB -> US………B -> US

    (B = background cues)

    -> B will elicit more than stimulus A 

 -> as the strength of the background cues increase, they begin to absorb a greater and greater share of the available strength (Vmax) until all is conditioned to B, none to A

   -> the model predicts that although fear will be conditioned to stimulus A initially, after extended training the nominal CS, stimulus A, will elicit no fear

   

Lernen & Gedächtnis

How could the Pavlovian concepts of generalisation and counterconditioning be used to account for the success of systematic desensitisation?


counterconditioning

-> when you pair the CS (phobic symbols) with the US that elicits a different response (relaxation): less likely that old response will occur the more strong the new connection is 

-> suppress the fear


generalisation

- is not only for one feared stimuli but for all of the feared stimuli (?)

Lernen & Gedächtnis

How is Kamin’s concept of surprise incorporated within the Rescorla-Wagner model?

Kamin showed with the blocking experiment that learning depends on some extent on the discrepancy between what happens to us and what we expected to happen

  • where Kamin has assumed that surprise determined whether conditioning occurs, Rescorla and Wagner extended this assumption -> the surprise would also determine how much conditioning occurs -> the more unexpected the US, the stronger the conditioning 

Lernen & Gedächtnis

How does the model account for blocking?


  • blocking: if two conditioned stimuli (a and b) were presented together, the subject would take both stimuli into account in estimating the likelihood of the US 

    -> the association at the beginning of a trial: Vab = Va + Vb

    -> the amount of conditioning on a compound trial :

    ΔVa = ΔVb = c (Vmax - Vab)

    - experiment: noise was paired with shock, then a noise-light compound was paired with shock

    V(noise) = 1.0

    Vnl = V(noise) + V(light) = 1.0 + 0 = 1.0

    the amount of conditioning to the light would be -> ΔV(light) = c (Vmax - Vnl) = 0.3 (1.0-1.0) = 0

    -> no conditioning would occur

Lernen & Gedächtnis

There are two crucial tests of any theoretical model: Can it account for known phenomena and can it accurately predict new ones? What is an example of the Rescorla-Wagner model’s new predictions?


over expectation effect: result of cues predicting US more strongly than it is justified

Lernen & Gedächtnis

How did Garcia and Knelling show that the conditioning of a stronger aversion to a taste than to a light wasn’t simply the result of greater salience of the taste as a conditioned stimulus?


-> they repeated their experiment with the same compound CS (taste-noise-light), but with electro shocks as the US instead of X rays -> the audiovisual stimulus produces suppression of drinking and the taste stimulus had no effect 

Lernen & Gedächtnis

Is contiguity necessary of sufficient for conditioning? What is the relevant evidence?

-> it is necessary but not sufficient 


evidence:

- Rescorla -> contingeny 


Lernen & Gedächtnis

What assumptions did Hull and Tolman share in common? Where did they disagree?

- acceptance of unobservable behavior/ mental states

-> similar position

- disagree about the nature of the internal states

Hull: simple associations

Tolman: more complex forms (expectations)

Lernen & Gedächtnis

What is the equation used by Rescorla and Wagner to predict learning? What does each symbol represent?


ΔVn = c (Vmax - Vn)


Vn = the strength of the association at the beginning of trial n

ΔVn = the change in the strength of the association produces by trial n

Vmax: asymptotic value of V

 c -> determines the speed of conditioning

Lernen & Gedächtnis

How can the same equation be used to predict both conditioning and extinction?

  • in conditioning:  ΔVn is positive because Vmax is 1

    - Vmax = 1.0, c = 0.3, the associative strength at the beginning of trial 1 is assumed to be zero

    ΔV1 = c (Vmax - V1) = 0.30 (1.0-0) = 0.30

    ΔV2 = c (Vmax - V2) = 0.30 (1.0-0.30) = 0.21


  • Extinction: ΔVn is negative because Vmax is 0

   example: on the first extinction trial, V would have an initial value of 0.66

    - result of nonreinforcement: ΔV1 = c (Vmax - V1) = 0.30 (0-0.66) = -0.198

    -> V2 = 0.66-0.2 = 0.46


Lernen & Gedächtnis

Can you figure out how the model could be used to account for the phenomenon of conditioned inhibition?


maybe the stimulus inhibiting the normally elicited CS is conditioned in a new way and owns the full associative strength -> blocking

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