Anglistik/Amerikanistik at Universität Kassel | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Anglistik/Amerikanistik an der Universität Kassel

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Word Structure

How are the terms Root, Base and Stem defined?

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Root = morpheme on which the rest of the word is built, remains after all affixes are removed  (e.g. woman-iz-er-s)

Base = any structure to which an affix may be added 

Stem = any base to which a grammatical affix may be added (e.g. woman-iz-er-s)

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Compounding

What does the term Compounding refer to?


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-It refers to the creation of a new word by combining two existing words

--> Noun compound e.g. jumpsuit ( V + N = N)

--> Verb compound e.g. whitewash ( A + V = V)

-->  Adjective compound e.g. overripe (P + A = A)

- Compounds can be analyzed as hierarchical structures (they have binary subelements)

- Adjective-noun compounds generally bear more prominent stress on their left constituent/ Adjective-noun phrases on their right constituent 

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Inflection and Derivation

What is Derivation?

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- word formation process that changes word class/ or basic meaning of the input base (e.g. drink V + er Af = drinker N)

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Compounding

What are Exocentric Compounds?

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Exocentric (bahuvrihi) compounds

 - third entity that is not denoted by one of the constituents alone (A + B = C)

 As in endocentric compounds, part of speech is inherited from right-hand member

--> e.g. pickpocket "someone who steals something from people's pockets"/ killjoy

Exocentric possessive compounds:

denote entity that is characterized by the property expressed by the compound

- Left hand member is usually an adjective.

--> e.g. greybeard "someone/thing (a seal) with a grey beard" 



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Compounding

What are Synthetic Compounds?

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- created by simultaneous use of compounding and derivation

--> e.g. beerdrinker "someone who drinks beer"

- The initial constituent can be interpreted as the direct object of the verb "to drink"

A obj + B verb = B er

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Morphemes

What are Morpheme types?

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Morpheme = smallest component of a word that carries meaning or grammatical function

Free Morphemes = can constitute words by themselves (e.g. water)

Bound Morphemes = must be attached to another element (e.g. sing + er)

Allomorphs = different realizations of one and the same morpheme that depend on phonological/morphological context (e.g. book-s, church-es)

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Compounding

What are Endocentric Compounds?

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- denote a subset of denotation class of the head (A + B = B)

- The first constituent serves to restrict meaning of the second 

- most regular and productive compound time (e.g. handbag = type of bag)

--> e.g. beer bottle "a bottle for beer": 

- bottle specifies the object itself : a beer bottle is a kind of bottle = head of the compound

- Beer determines the type of object = dependent of the compound


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Compounding

What is the difference between Endo- und Exocentric Compounds?

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Endocentric compounds employ irregular plural form (e.g. wisdom teeth)

Exocentric compounds allow regular plural suffix -s (e.g. saber tooths)

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Inflection and Derivation

What is Inflection?

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- modification of a word's form to induce a change of grammatical information

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Inflection and Derivation

What is the difference between Inflection and Derivation?

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Derivation (e.g. heart N heartess Adj)

- may change part of speech/ type of meaning of the base

- Derivational affixes create new base forms which other affixes can attach to

Inflection (e.g. heart N hearts N)

- never changes part oof speech/type of meaning of the base

- inflectional affixes attach to already existing members of given part of speech

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 Basic notions and terms
What is an expression?
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physical perceptable representation of a sign (e.g. sounds, gestures)
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Word Structure

What three affix categories exist?

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Affix = a bound morpheme that modifies the meaning and/ or the syntactic subcategory of the stem

Prefix = an affix that is attached the front of its base (e.g de-activate, il-legal...)

Suffix = an affix that is attached to the end of its base (e.g. faith-ful, kind-ness...)

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Q:

Word Structure

How are the terms Root, Base and Stem defined?

A:

Root = morpheme on which the rest of the word is built, remains after all affixes are removed  (e.g. woman-iz-er-s)

Base = any structure to which an affix may be added 

Stem = any base to which a grammatical affix may be added (e.g. woman-iz-er-s)

Q:

Compounding

What does the term Compounding refer to?


A:

-It refers to the creation of a new word by combining two existing words

--> Noun compound e.g. jumpsuit ( V + N = N)

--> Verb compound e.g. whitewash ( A + V = V)

-->  Adjective compound e.g. overripe (P + A = A)

- Compounds can be analyzed as hierarchical structures (they have binary subelements)

- Adjective-noun compounds generally bear more prominent stress on their left constituent/ Adjective-noun phrases on their right constituent 

Q:

Inflection and Derivation

What is Derivation?

A:

- word formation process that changes word class/ or basic meaning of the input base (e.g. drink V + er Af = drinker N)

Q:

Compounding

What are Exocentric Compounds?

A:

Exocentric (bahuvrihi) compounds

 - third entity that is not denoted by one of the constituents alone (A + B = C)

 As in endocentric compounds, part of speech is inherited from right-hand member

--> e.g. pickpocket "someone who steals something from people's pockets"/ killjoy

Exocentric possessive compounds:

denote entity that is characterized by the property expressed by the compound

- Left hand member is usually an adjective.

--> e.g. greybeard "someone/thing (a seal) with a grey beard" 



Q:

Compounding

What are Synthetic Compounds?

A:

- created by simultaneous use of compounding and derivation

--> e.g. beerdrinker "someone who drinks beer"

- The initial constituent can be interpreted as the direct object of the verb "to drink"

A obj + B verb = B er

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Q:

Morphemes

What are Morpheme types?

A:

Morpheme = smallest component of a word that carries meaning or grammatical function

Free Morphemes = can constitute words by themselves (e.g. water)

Bound Morphemes = must be attached to another element (e.g. sing + er)

Allomorphs = different realizations of one and the same morpheme that depend on phonological/morphological context (e.g. book-s, church-es)

Q:

Compounding

What are Endocentric Compounds?

A:

- denote a subset of denotation class of the head (A + B = B)

- The first constituent serves to restrict meaning of the second 

- most regular and productive compound time (e.g. handbag = type of bag)

--> e.g. beer bottle "a bottle for beer": 

- bottle specifies the object itself : a beer bottle is a kind of bottle = head of the compound

- Beer determines the type of object = dependent of the compound


Q:

Compounding

What is the difference between Endo- und Exocentric Compounds?

A:

Endocentric compounds employ irregular plural form (e.g. wisdom teeth)

Exocentric compounds allow regular plural suffix -s (e.g. saber tooths)

Q:

Inflection and Derivation

What is Inflection?

A:

- modification of a word's form to induce a change of grammatical information

Q:

Inflection and Derivation

What is the difference between Inflection and Derivation?

A:

Derivation (e.g. heart N heartess Adj)

- may change part of speech/ type of meaning of the base

- Derivational affixes create new base forms which other affixes can attach to

Inflection (e.g. heart N hearts N)

- never changes part oof speech/type of meaning of the base

- inflectional affixes attach to already existing members of given part of speech

Q:
 Basic notions and terms
What is an expression?
A:
physical perceptable representation of a sign (e.g. sounds, gestures)
Q:

Word Structure

What three affix categories exist?

A:

Affix = a bound morpheme that modifies the meaning and/ or the syntactic subcategory of the stem

Prefix = an affix that is attached the front of its base (e.g de-activate, il-legal...)

Suffix = an affix that is attached to the end of its base (e.g. faith-ful, kind-ness...)

Anglistik/Amerikanistik

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