Introduction to Linguistics 2 at Universität Jena

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How can we test for ambiguity? 

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics 2 at the Universität Jena on StudySmarter:

What happens if we do not obey to Grice's maxims? 

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics 2 at the Universität Jena on StudySmarter:

What is the difference between vagueness and ambiguity? 
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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics 2 at the Universität Jena on StudySmarter:

What are connotations? 

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics 2 at the Universität Jena on StudySmarter:

Paradigmatic relations:
Aunt is the [...] of niece 

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics 2 at the Universität Jena on StudySmarter:

Iowa is the [...] of USA

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics 2 at the Universität Jena on StudySmarter:

What are oppositions to paradigmatic relations? 
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Heavy is the [...] of light 

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics 2 at the Universität Jena on StudySmarter:

Dead is the [...] of alive. 

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics 2 at the Universität Jena on StudySmarter:

Vehicle is the [...] of truck

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Subcategories of ambiguity 
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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics 2 at the Universität Jena on StudySmarter:

What are syntagmatic relations? 

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics 2 at the Universität Jena on StudySmarter:

Introduction to Linguistics 2

How can we test for ambiguity? 
1. Contrast test 
  • This is an X not an X. 
  • "This is a mouse, not a mouse." 
2. Definition test 
  • Is there a common meaning? 
3. Zeugma test 
  • A did B and CD
  • " I saw a mouse eating cheese and closing a tab." 

Introduction to Linguistics 2

What happens if we do not obey to Grice's maxims? 
We can... 
  • Violate (e. g. Lie) 
  • Opt out (e. g. saying "I may be wrong, but...) 
  • Flout
... A Maxim 

Introduction to Linguistics 2

What is the difference between vagueness and ambiguity? 
Vagueness 
= meanings are related, similar 
e. g. : grandmother >father's mother 
                                      > mother's mother 
Ambiguity
= clearly separable senses, zeugmatic effect if senses are activated at the same time

Introduction to Linguistics 2

What are connotations? 
  • Associations, that a group of people share
  • Distinction between sense and connotation 
  • Variables: region, age, style, register 

Introduction to Linguistics 2

Paradigmatic relations:
Aunt is the [...] of niece 
 Converse 

Introduction to Linguistics 2

Iowa is the [...] of USA
Meronym 

Introduction to Linguistics 2

What are oppositions to paradigmatic relations? 
Antonymes 
Two concept that designate endpoints on a scale (long - short). 
Complementary opposites 
Two concepts that exclude each other (alive - dead) 
Converses
Two expressions that represent the same event from contrasting perspectives (above below) 

Introduction to Linguistics 2

Heavy is the [...] of light 
Complementary opposite

Introduction to Linguistics 2

Dead is the [...] of alive. 
Complementary opposite 

Introduction to Linguistics 2

Vehicle is the [...] of truck
Antonym 

Introduction to Linguistics 2

Subcategories of ambiguity 
Polysemy 
= same lexeme two senses , same etymology
e. g. : table > furniture 
                      > info in rows and colons
Homonymy
= no related senses, one form two lexemes
e. g. : raise   =   rays
         >lift up      >of sun

Introduction to Linguistics 2

What are syntagmatic relations? 
Co-occurence of words
  • Using corpora like: BNC (British national corpus) & COCA (corpus of contemporary American English) 

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