Introduction To Linguistics at Universität Freiburg Im Breisgau | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Introduction to Linguistics an der Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

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Def. Semantics

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the study of the meaning of words, phrases and sentences out of context 

-> what is literally said?

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psycholinguistics

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studies how physical activities and processes in our brain are connected to language abilities

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Def. 

Historical comparative linguistics

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Diachronic language comparison to identify universal laws of language change, reconstruct a common protolanguage, as well as identify genetic relationships between languages

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inflectional morphology

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different forms that a word (=a dictionary entry) can take -> "am", "is", "were" are different word forms of be


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Places of articulation

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labial, dental, alveolar, post- alveolar, palatal, velar, uvula, pharyngeal, glottal

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inflectional morphemes 

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bound morphemes that add lexical meaning, can change the meaning and word class

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portmanteau morph

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A particular morph instantiates more than one morpheme at the same time


- 'his': one morph proiveds three different pieces of information: possessive pronoun, masculine, Sg.


- /s/ in he sings: indicates 3rd person, Sg, present tense + indicative

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Difference subject complement vs object complement

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Subject complement:

- follows a linking verb (be, appear, feel, look, sound, smell, ...)

- adds information to the subject


Object complement:

- follows a direct object

- adds information to the direct object

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Def. linguistic typology

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synchronic cross- linguistic comparison. Do not investigate genealogical relationship between languages but explores universals and variations and their limits- e.g. word order



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Def. phone

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an actual physical sound unit

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Difference between morpheme and morph

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- morpheme: the smallest unit of a word that has meaning -> abstract representation of a syntactic element, e.g. "the regular plural" morpheme


- morph: the phonetic/ written realization of that morpheme, e.g. "regular plural" 


morpheme "regular plural" has 3 allomoprhs: morph s, morph z, morphs az

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langue vs. parole

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langue

- "How does the system of language work?"

- #focus on systematic regularities of the abstract language system, shared by the members of a speech community


parole

"How one individual speaks to an audience"

- focus on actual language use by individuals in concrete situations

- how one speaks in a specific situation (e.g. political speech)


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  • 61156 Karteikarten
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  • 21 Lernmaterialien

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Q:

Def. Semantics

A:

the study of the meaning of words, phrases and sentences out of context 

-> what is literally said?

Q:

psycholinguistics

A:

studies how physical activities and processes in our brain are connected to language abilities

Q:

Def. 

Historical comparative linguistics

A:

Diachronic language comparison to identify universal laws of language change, reconstruct a common protolanguage, as well as identify genetic relationships between languages

Q:

inflectional morphology

A:

different forms that a word (=a dictionary entry) can take -> "am", "is", "were" are different word forms of be


Q:

Places of articulation

A:

labial, dental, alveolar, post- alveolar, palatal, velar, uvula, pharyngeal, glottal

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

inflectional morphemes 

A:

bound morphemes that add lexical meaning, can change the meaning and word class

Q:

portmanteau morph

A:

A particular morph instantiates more than one morpheme at the same time


- 'his': one morph proiveds three different pieces of information: possessive pronoun, masculine, Sg.


- /s/ in he sings: indicates 3rd person, Sg, present tense + indicative

Q:

Difference subject complement vs object complement

A:

Subject complement:

- follows a linking verb (be, appear, feel, look, sound, smell, ...)

- adds information to the subject


Object complement:

- follows a direct object

- adds information to the direct object

Q:

Def. linguistic typology

A:

synchronic cross- linguistic comparison. Do not investigate genealogical relationship between languages but explores universals and variations and their limits- e.g. word order



Q:

Def. phone

A:

an actual physical sound unit

Q:

Difference between morpheme and morph

A:

- morpheme: the smallest unit of a word that has meaning -> abstract representation of a syntactic element, e.g. "the regular plural" morpheme


- morph: the phonetic/ written realization of that morpheme, e.g. "regular plural" 


morpheme "regular plural" has 3 allomoprhs: morph s, morph z, morphs az

Q:

langue vs. parole

A:

langue

- "How does the system of language work?"

- #focus on systematic regularities of the abstract language system, shared by the members of a speech community


parole

"How one individual speaks to an audience"

- focus on actual language use by individuals in concrete situations

- how one speaks in a specific situation (e.g. political speech)


Introduction to Linguistics

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