Pragmatics at Universität Frankfurt Am Main | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Pragmatics an der Universität Frankfurt am Main

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Tautologies
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Expressing something completely obvious if they are used in a conversation the speaker and tends to communicate more than is said
 example: a hamburger is a hamburger


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Particularized conversational implicatures
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Most of the time conversations take place in very specific contexts in which locally recognized inferences are assumed

Such inferences are required to work out the meaning which results from

where are you going with the dog?
To the V E T
Knien context: dog understands vet

Because they are by far most common they are usually just called implicatures
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Constancy under negation
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Marys dog isn't cute (=not p) 
Mary has a dog (q) 

Not p >> q
If p is negated, q doesn't change

The presupposition will remain constant even when the statement is negated

If two speakers disagree about the vadility of a sentence, they both assume the truth of the presupposition 
Everybody knows that John is gay. Everybody doesn't know that John is gay

Presupposition: John is gay. 
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Non-factive presupposition 
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One that is assumed not to be true
Verbs like dream imagine and pretend example I dream that I was rich  >>I was not rich
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Conversational implicature
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Communicate more than said in a conversation
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What is person deixis? 
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Indicates people, 3 part division (first second and third person), social deixis, TV distinction. 

Third person pronouns are distal forms, using a third from where a second form could be used is one way of communicating distance. This can also be used to make potential accusations that are more impersonal 

Inclusive we and exclusive we
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What are referring expressions?
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Linguistic forms used to refer to something such as nouns, noun phrases or pronouns

The choice depends to a large extent on what the speaker assumes the listener already knows

In shared visual contexts, pronouns that function as deictic expressions may be sufficient for successful reference
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What is a cataphora? 
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Reversal of the antecedent — anaphor pattern 
First the anaphor and then the antecedent
Less common than anaphora

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Difference between factive and lexical presuppositions
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In the case of lexical presupposition, the speaker's use of a particular expression is taking to presuppose another unstated concept whereas in the case of factive presupposition, particular expression is taking to presuppose the truth of the information stated afterwards
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What is spatial deixis? 
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Indicates the relative location of people and things 
Contemporary English : here and there
Before: yonder, hither, thence 

Some Verbs have a deictic sense to mark movement towards the speaker (come) or away from the speaker (go) 

Concept of distanxce

Location from the speaker's perspective and be fixed mentally as well as physically. 

Truely pragmatic basis of spatial deixis is psychological distance

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The four areas Pragmatics is concerned with
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The study of Speaker meaning: meaning is communicated by a speaker/writer and interpreted by the listener/reader. It's about analyzing meaning. 

The study of contextual meaning: context influences what is said. How does the speaker organise the information? Who are they talking to? Where? When? Under what circumstances?

The study of how more gets communicated than is said: listeners make inferences to arrive at an interpretation of the speaker's intended meaning. Much of what is unsaid is recognized as part of what is communicated (invisible meaning) 

The study of expression of relative distance: notion of distance, physical, social or conceptual closeness implies shared experience. Depending on how close are distant the listener is the speaker determines how much needs to be said 


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Speech Act: locutionary Act
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Is the basic act of utterance or producing a meaningful linguistic expression

If one has difficulty with forming sounds or words one can fail to produce a locutionary act
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  • 83 Lernmaterialien

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Q:
Tautologies
A:
Expressing something completely obvious if they are used in a conversation the speaker and tends to communicate more than is said
 example: a hamburger is a hamburger


Q:
Particularized conversational implicatures
A:
Most of the time conversations take place in very specific contexts in which locally recognized inferences are assumed

Such inferences are required to work out the meaning which results from

where are you going with the dog?
To the V E T
Knien context: dog understands vet

Because they are by far most common they are usually just called implicatures
Q:
Constancy under negation
A:
Marys dog isn't cute (=not p) 
Mary has a dog (q) 

Not p >> q
If p is negated, q doesn't change

The presupposition will remain constant even when the statement is negated

If two speakers disagree about the vadility of a sentence, they both assume the truth of the presupposition 
Everybody knows that John is gay. Everybody doesn't know that John is gay

Presupposition: John is gay. 
Q:
Non-factive presupposition 
A:
One that is assumed not to be true
Verbs like dream imagine and pretend example I dream that I was rich  >>I was not rich
Q:
Conversational implicature
A:
Communicate more than said in a conversation
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What is person deixis? 
A:
Indicates people, 3 part division (first second and third person), social deixis, TV distinction. 

Third person pronouns are distal forms, using a third from where a second form could be used is one way of communicating distance. This can also be used to make potential accusations that are more impersonal 

Inclusive we and exclusive we
Q:
What are referring expressions?
A:
Linguistic forms used to refer to something such as nouns, noun phrases or pronouns

The choice depends to a large extent on what the speaker assumes the listener already knows

In shared visual contexts, pronouns that function as deictic expressions may be sufficient for successful reference
Q:
What is a cataphora? 
A:
Reversal of the antecedent — anaphor pattern 
First the anaphor and then the antecedent
Less common than anaphora

Q:
Difference between factive and lexical presuppositions
A:
In the case of lexical presupposition, the speaker's use of a particular expression is taking to presuppose another unstated concept whereas in the case of factive presupposition, particular expression is taking to presuppose the truth of the information stated afterwards
Q:
What is spatial deixis? 
A:
Indicates the relative location of people and things 
Contemporary English : here and there
Before: yonder, hither, thence 

Some Verbs have a deictic sense to mark movement towards the speaker (come) or away from the speaker (go) 

Concept of distanxce

Location from the speaker's perspective and be fixed mentally as well as physically. 

Truely pragmatic basis of spatial deixis is psychological distance

Q:
The four areas Pragmatics is concerned with
A:
The study of Speaker meaning: meaning is communicated by a speaker/writer and interpreted by the listener/reader. It's about analyzing meaning. 

The study of contextual meaning: context influences what is said. How does the speaker organise the information? Who are they talking to? Where? When? Under what circumstances?

The study of how more gets communicated than is said: listeners make inferences to arrive at an interpretation of the speaker's intended meaning. Much of what is unsaid is recognized as part of what is communicated (invisible meaning) 

The study of expression of relative distance: notion of distance, physical, social or conceptual closeness implies shared experience. Depending on how close are distant the listener is the speaker determines how much needs to be said 


Q:
Speech Act: locutionary Act
A:
Is the basic act of utterance or producing a meaningful linguistic expression

If one has difficulty with forming sounds or words one can fail to produce a locutionary act
Pragmatics

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