Clinical Immunology at Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Flashcards and summaries for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What is Homeostasis?

Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What is inflammation in the context of homeostasis? 

Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What comes before inflammation?

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Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What do chemokines and cytokines do?

Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What Pattern Recognition Receptors do you know? 

Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What are some inducers, sensors, mediators and effectors in Inflammatory control circuits? 

Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What are the steps of the inflammatory cascade? (6) 

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Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mediators do you know? 

Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What are the different cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system and what are their origins? 

Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

Macrophages and antigen presentation

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How are RTM maintained? 

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Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What is the fundamental function of Inflammation?

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Exemplary flashcards for Clinical Immunology at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

Clinical Immunology

What is Homeostasis?

The maintenance of stability of a biological system upon internal or external stressors 


Natural resistance to change when conditions are optimal 


Clinical Immunology

What is inflammation in the context of homeostasis? 

Program to restore conditions or adapt to new conditions when stressor exceeds the homeostatic capacity of a system

Clinical Immunology

What comes before inflammation?

homeostasis--> Local stress response --> inflammations 

Clinical Immunology

What do chemokines and cytokines do?

They are both mediators 

Chemokines recruit effector cells to the site 

Cytokines activate effector cells at the site

Clinical Immunology

What Pattern Recognition Receptors do you know? 

Toll like receptors

  • TLR1/2: lipoprotein, unconventional LPS
  • TLR2: Peptidoglycan
  • TLR 2/6 : Mycoplasmal lipoprotein 
  • TLR 4: LPS
  • TLR 5: Flaggelin 
  • TLR 11: Profilin (protozoa)
  • TLR 3 dsRNA 
  • TLR 7: ssRNA 
  • TLR 8: ssRNA 
  • TLR 9: un-methylated CpG DNA

NOD 1: DAP 

NOD 2: MDP 


Clinical Immunology

What are some inducers, sensors, mediators and effectors in Inflammatory control circuits? 

INDUCER

  • Pathogens 
  • Tissue Damage 
  • loss of homeostasis 


IMMUNE SENSOR 

  • Macrophages 
  • Mast cells 
  • sensory neurons 
  • fibroblasts 
  • endothelial cells 

nearly all cells can detect danger through PRRs


MEDIATORS

  • TNF, IL1, IL6 
  • CCL2, CXCL8
  • Histamine ( causes contraction of smooth muscle tissues, dilation of blood vessels and regulates maturation and activation of leukocytes)
  • Bradikinin ( a potent endothelium dependent vasodilator that causes lowering of blood pressure and increased vascular permeability) 
  • Eicosanoids( inflammatory mediators primarily generated by hydrolosis of membrane phospholipid signalling molecules such as prostaglandins 

IMMUNE EFFECTOR 

  • liver 
  • vasculature 
  • bone marrow 
  • leukocytes 
  • lymphocytes 


Clinical Immunology

What are the steps of the inflammatory cascade? (6) 

1.Endothelial activation 

2. Sticky endothelium 

3. Leukocyte rolling 

4. Adhesion 

5. Extravasation 

6. Migration 


Microbes or necrotic tissue are recognised by macrophages and other sentinel cells in tissues. These sentinels release mediators such as amines and cytokines which lead to recruitment of leukocytes. the endothelium becomes sticky and allows rolling of the leukocytes and also leads to vasodilation. plasma proteins such as complement are released into the tissue and edema 


Clinical Immunology

What proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mediators do you know? 

PRO

  • Prostaglandins 
  • leukotriens 

ANTI

  • Lipoxins 
  • Resolvins 
  • Protectins 
  • Maresins 




Clinical Immunology

What are the different cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system and what are their origins? 

Embryonic origin--> Macrophages 


adult HSC origin 

- monocyte derived cell

- cDC1 and cDC2 

- pDC


macrophages are important for tissue homeostasis, clearance and containment 


DCs are important for Immune modulation and antigen presentation 


Clinical Immunology

Macrophages and antigen presentation

They have inferior antigen presentation 

NO antigen presentation 


Clinical Immunology

How are RTM maintained? 

Macrophages are derived from early embryonic progenitors in the yolk sac ( and fetal liver) and can be maintained throughout life by self renewal. 

Similar to stem cells, local self renewal of macrophages is characterised by low proliferation rates under steady state conditions but strong expansion during development or under challenge. 


need M-CSF and IL34

Clinical Immunology

What is the fundamental function of Inflammation?

It protects organismal integrity 

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