Allergies at Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

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Exemplary flashcards for Allergies at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What are therapeutic options to treat allergies?

Exemplary flashcards for Allergies at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What is the differentiation of Basophils driven by?

Exemplary flashcards for Allergies at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

what are the effector funcitons of mast cells? and the most important effector molecules ?

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Exemplary flashcards for Allergies at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What are some inhibitory receptors on mast cells? 

Exemplary flashcards for Allergies at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction? (Type IV)

Exemplary flashcards for Allergies at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What are eicosanoids?

Exemplary flashcards for Allergies at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

How many differnt STAT proteins are there in the immune system?

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Exemplary flashcards for Allergies at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What is the definition of Allergy?

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What are some major allergens?

Exemplary flashcards for Allergies at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

What is similar about all the food allergen?

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What is the most severe form of allergy? what are the symptoms?

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What causes the allergies in food allergens?

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Exemplary flashcards for Allergies at the Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

Allergies

What are therapeutic options to treat allergies?

Desensitisation 

Subcutaneous or sublingual administration of antigen in increasing
concentrations every 2 weeks for 2-3 years. 

Only in off-seaseon. Risk: anaphylaxis.

  • Change from IgE to IgG. IgG binds and neutralizes the allergen.(scavenge)
  • how it works and why it works is molecularly not well understood
  • Induction of regulatory T cells
  • Synthesis of IgG4 (binds inhibitory Fc receptors)

Humanised anti IgE AB

Omalizumab: binds only free IgE, no activation of mast cells


Immunisation

under development. Immunisation with recombinatn allergens or T cell epitopes ( problem: MHC polymorphism), small molecules that block receptor ligan interactions 



Allergies

What is the differentiation of Basophils driven by?

IL3 and TSLP

it also doesnt express c-Kit. they finish their maturation in the bone marrow and leave the bm as mature cells

 mast cells become mature in the tissue usually. they leave the marrow as a precursor cell 


Allergies

what are the effector funcitons of mast cells? and the most important effector molecules ?

GI

  • increased fluid secretion, increased mucus secretion 
  • expulsion of GI tract contents #

Airways

  • decreased diameter, increased musus secretion 
  • congestion and blockade of airways 
  • swelling and mucus secretion in the nasal passages 

Blood vessels 

  • increased blood flow 
  • increased cell and protein in tissues, effector response in tissues 


MAIN MOLECULES

Enzymes: Tryptase, chymase, cathepsin G, carbozypeptidase --> remodel connective tissue matrix 

Toxic mediators: such as histamnine which lead to increased vascular permeability and smooth muscle contraction 

Various cytokines: TNF, IL4, IL13, GM-CSF, IL5 and IL3 


Lipid mediators:all arise from arachidnoic acid that then variuos processed that lead to production of prostaglandins (smooth muscle contraction) and platelet activating factor (attracts leukocytes)

Allergies

What are some inhibitory receptors on mast cells? 

IL10 receptor 4

TGFbeta receptor

CD200R

CD300a

FCgammaRIIb and Fcepsilon RI 

gp49B1 (uses integrin as ligand) 


it is important ot have these regulatory mechanisms to controll the actiivyt 


Allergies

What is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction? (Type IV)

Type IV has a direct connection to the type I response 

in the first response to an allergen you may develop a local small flare in the skin wihtin a few minutes  a few hours later, a larger area may be swollen--> late phase allergic reaction 




Develops 3-24h after antigen exposure


Infiltration of eosinophils, monocytes, basophils and Th2 cells--> more effector cells


Elicited by mediator release from mast cells


Recruited effector cells and endothelial cells produce chemokines,
interleukins and lipid mediators which recruit further effector cells


Anaphylatoxins (C3a, C5a) activate mast cells and basophils


Enhanced and prolonged inflammatory response which declines after a few hours. Chronic antigen exposure can lead to asthma bronchiale, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis


Mast cells elicit the late phase reaction by mediator release 


Allergies

What are eicosanoids?

Come from cell membrane phospholipids --> arachidonic acid

you need a phospholipase (e.g. PLA2) 

this needs enzymes such as Cox1 and Cox2 to become prostaglandins (which are important in allergic responses) 

or 5 lipoxygenase can be activated and leagd to the productuon of Leukotriene, which is a strong chemoattractant 

Allergies

How many differnt STAT proteins are there in the immune system?

six different STAT proteins that interact with different pathways.

it is quite large and can bend around the double helix

some of the domains are required for the binding to the receptors and others for DNA binding. Fh2 is required for receptor binding and dimerisation 


Allergies

What is the definition of Allergy?

Acquired hypersensitivity to harmless substances in the environment 

Allergies

What are some major allergens?

Animal hair (cat fur)

Mites 

Cockroach 

Mold (aspergillus)

Latex

Pollen 

Drugs (penicillin)

Contact allergens (nickel)

Insect venoms (bee)

Food--> Eight major allergen groups 

  • Crustacean/ shellfish 
  • Egg
  • Fish 
  • Milk
  • Peanut
  • Soy
  • Tree nuts 
  • Wheat 


Allergies

What is similar about all the food allergen?

they are all rather small proteins 

some of them have enxymatic activity but others are just structural proteins like serum albumin and myosin heavy chains#

it is difficult to say what kind of proteins cause allergy 


Allergies

What is the most severe form of allergy? what are the symptoms?

Anaphylactic shock 

Signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock are 

  • light headedness, loss of consiousness, headach and confusion 
  • swelling of conjunctiva 
  • runny nose 
  • swelling of lips and tongue 
  • increased or decreased heart rate  and low blood pressure due to vasodilation and an increased diameter of blood vessels. can even lead to unconsiousness 
  • shortness of breath (respiratory system is severely affected as the smooth muscles contract making the diameter of the airway smaller)
  • Loss of bladder control
  • hives and itching 
  • diarrhea and vomiting 


Allergies

What causes the allergies in food allergens?

  • large spectrum of different proteins 
  • all quite small proteins (8kD)
  • some have enzymatic activity (lysozym) bur some are only structural proteins (serum albumin)
  • it changes during lifespan to which kind of food allergens people respond -> milk, peanut (children) -> shellfish, peanut (adults) (maybe how you take up nutrition?

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