Geschichte at Universität Bielefeld

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Exemplary flashcards for Geschichte at the Universität Bielefeld on StudySmarter:

When was the last ice age? 

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Earliest evidence of modern Homo sapiens in Britain? 

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When and from where did the Homo sapiens sapiens migrate to the British Isles? 

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Who was Cheddar Man? 

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What were characteristics of the Middle Stone Age? 

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Timeline of  Prehistoric Britain

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What is the significance of Orkney? 

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What were characteristics of the Neolithic Age? 

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What is Stonehenge? 

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What was Durrington Walls?

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Who were the Celts?

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Where did the terms Albion and Britannia come from?

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Exemplary flashcards for Geschichte at the Universität Bielefeld on StudySmarter:

Geschichte

When was the last ice age? 
ca. 20,000 BP

Geschichte

Earliest evidence of modern Homo sapiens in Britain? 
31,000 years ago

Geschichte

When and from where did the Homo sapiens sapiens migrate to the British Isles? 
  • hunter-gatherers from Iberia
  • farmers from Balkans/Turkey
  • CA. 10,000-7,000 years ago
  • migrated north as the ice melted

Geschichte

Who was Cheddar Man? 
  • a mesolithic hunter-gatherer
  • lived around 10,000 years ago
  • migrated to British Isles during end of last ice age
  • skeleton was found in 1903 in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset

Geschichte

What were characteristics of the Middle Stone Age? 
  • farming introduced to Britain
  • rapid climate warming
  • rise in sea levels -> development of modern shorelines
  • people were hunter-gatherers
  • later: social complexity and sedentism
  • small temporary settlements in Britain in contrast to general Mesolithic characteristics

Geschichte

Timeline of  Prehistoric Britain
  • Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic) : ca. 10,000 to 4,000 BCE
  • Neolithic (Stone Age): ca. 4,000 to 2,500 BCE
  • Bronze Age: 2,500 to 800 BCE
  • Iron Age: 800 BCE to 400 CE

Geschichte

What is the significance of Orkney? 
  • most important Neolithic site in Britain
  • archipelago in Scotland with Neolithic ruins of villages and historic sites
  • e.g. Skara Brae, a Neolithic village (3,100 to 2,500 BC)
  • e.g. Maes Howe, chambered passage tomb (3,000 to 2,800 BC)

Geschichte

What were characteristics of the Neolithic Age? 
  • introduction of domesticated animals by European settlers (sheep)
  • early small and short-lived settlements
  • later formation of small villages (e.g. Orkney) 
  • monuments to the dead, e.g. long mounds, passage graves
  • henge monuments as ceremonial centres (Stonehenge) 

Geschichte

What is Stonehenge? 
  • a ceremonial centre most likely dedicated to transition from life to death
  • stones aligned with solstices
  • was built from ca. 3,000 to 2,000 BC
  • unattended from 800 BC
  • bodies were brought from Woodhenge to Stonehenge via the River Avon (passage from life to death) and Bluehenge (death)
  • largest burial ground in Britain at that time
-> ritual landscape! 

Geschichte

What was Durrington Walls?
  • Residential housing for up to 3000 people (total population of 40,000-50,000)
  • inhabited seasonally
  • people would travel from far places to come there

Geschichte

Who were the Celts?

  • from "Keltoi", a greek word for tribes that spoke same Indo-European language
  • by 800 BCE they had spread to mainland Europe but not to north of Germany
  • La Tène culture (artifacts) had reached Britain by 400 BCE

Geschichte

Where did the terms Albion and Britannia come from?

  • 325 BC: Greek navigator calls natives in Southern England "Pretanike"
    -> means "tattooed" or "painted"
  • Greek and Romans later turn this into "Pretannia" -> Britannia
  • celtic name "Albion" comes from Proto-Indo-Germanic "albh" for white/hill

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