Englisch Sprachpraxis at Universität Augsburg | Flashcards & Summaries

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What is an idiom?

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a group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words

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What is a word combination?

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word which always have the same meaning e.g., to buy, to sell, to have, to hold, to draw, etc

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crawl

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  • is frequently used
  • was learnt in the early stages of second language acquisition
  • has several meanings what means it is a polysemy
    1. 1st meaning: to move along on your hands & knees with your body close to the ground = krabbeln
    2. 2nd: be crawling with something: to be completely covered with insects, people etc. = von etwas umgeben sein
      • The museum was crawled with cops.
    3. 3rd: crawl the Net/web: it quickly searches the Internet to find the particular information you need = schnell dursuchen
    4. 4th: to be too pleasant or helpful to someone in authority, especially because you want them to help you – used in order to show disapproval 
      • Crawl to -> He is crawling to her 
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serendipity

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  • Definition: something interesting or pleasant happening by chance
  • For example
    • What a serendipity that I gave birth to my child on Christmas Eve. 
    • Penicillin was discovered by serendipity 
  • synonyms: coincidence, by change, to happen to do sth.
  • Serendipity is not often used, more likely to say chance.
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keen

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  • A polysemy because it got different senses
  1. Wanting (someone) to do something
  2. Very interested in an activity that you do often because you enjoy it
  3. Very strong: a keen interest in something
  4. About sense/ability
  5. Wind: cold & strong
  6. Blade: very sharp
  • Keen is used in collocations
    1. In sense 4: 
      • Keen sight, hearing etc. = makes you very good at seeing things, hearing things etc.
        • Eagles are known for their keen eyesight.
        • A dog has a very keen sense of smell
    2. In sense 1:
      • Be keen to do something
      • Very/particularly keen
      • Be keen on doing something
      • Be keen for someone to do something
    3. Adjective complementation
      • Keen on someone = jemanden mögen, liking soe
      • Melissa seems to be pretty keen on Maxi
    4. As keen as a mustard = to be a nice person
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exacerbate

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  • from Latin word exacerbate
  • Meaning: to make something worse, especially a disease or problem
  • Example: Her symptoms are exacerbated because the doctor gave her the wrong medicine.
  • Exacerbate is used in a negative way
  • Formality: 
    1. In terms of lexis: refers to other words from people that are highly educated
    2. In terms of syntax: hypotactic constructions: several subordinate clauses are embedded in the overall sentence structure <-> paratactic (opposition) contraction: main close after the other 
    3. In terms of topic: exacerbate is used for something serious
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Manufacture on the bases of which I use apologize and when I use excuse?

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It´s About the perspective: the person who made a mistake apologizes, while the Person who has been affected excuses another person's behaviour.

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exonerate

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verb

Meaning:

‘to state officially that someone who has been blamed for something is not guilty’

Word Patterns:

Exonerate of and from

Fully exonerated of = collocation  

Pronunciation:

Stress: to eXonerate

Examples:

a) Dwight was exonerated from the crime of taking the money after it was found that his fingerprints did not match those on the cashbox.

b) The report fully exonerated Baroness Thatcher and her government of any wrongdoing.(The Times 1996)

German: entlasten

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drive

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Different Meanings & verb patterns:

1st Meaning: sb. Operates a vehicle so that it goes in a particular direction

Verb patterns: somebody drives sth- -> 1 Verb pattern

 2nd Verb pattern: sb. drives sth. somewhere

S-      V -     O-      A

-> more complex is followed by a compliment which indicates the direction

Meaning: sb forces sth to go into 

3rd verb patterns: sb/sth drives sb crazy/mad/insane/nuts

  S-          V-       O-      Co

-> have Object compliment

Meaning: sb/sth makes sb else get into an extreme emotional state

Meaning is determined by

  1. Number of functional sentence constituents
  2. Type of functional sentence constituents (distinguish between 2 and 3) 

 

Verb pattern 1: S-V-(O)

Verb pattern 2: S-V-O-A (adverbial)

Verb pattern 3: S-V-O-Co (object complement)

 

=> case of polysemy 

NOTE: verb patterns and meanings go hand in hand!

 

German: fahren oder jemand verrückt machen/ nerven

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borrow vs. lend

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  • borrow = somebody needs something from the owner
  • lend = owner gives permission to the usage of the thing for a certain span of time

Example:

Can I borrow your bike for the weekend? Vs. Can you lend me your bike for the weekend?

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What is a collocation?

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two words usually occur together and form an expression that is used to describe something (V-N; N-N, A-N, -A-V) to take above, deliver, give a speech, heavy trafiic

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What is Polysemy?

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Definition: One word with several semantic meanings

Example: 

  • Bank = get money from or sit on it
  • Embarrassment (of pandas) = a group of pandas or something you feel ashamed of
  • Murder (of crawls) = a group of crawls or somebody that kills others
  • Bitch = woman that sleeps with many men or a female dog (UK)
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  • 51601 Karteikarten
  • 1964 Studierende
  • 18 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Englisch Sprachpraxis Kurs an der Universität Augsburg - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What is an idiom?

A:

a group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words

Q:

What is a word combination?

A:

word which always have the same meaning e.g., to buy, to sell, to have, to hold, to draw, etc

Q:

crawl

A:
  • is frequently used
  • was learnt in the early stages of second language acquisition
  • has several meanings what means it is a polysemy
    1. 1st meaning: to move along on your hands & knees with your body close to the ground = krabbeln
    2. 2nd: be crawling with something: to be completely covered with insects, people etc. = von etwas umgeben sein
      • The museum was crawled with cops.
    3. 3rd: crawl the Net/web: it quickly searches the Internet to find the particular information you need = schnell dursuchen
    4. 4th: to be too pleasant or helpful to someone in authority, especially because you want them to help you – used in order to show disapproval 
      • Crawl to -> He is crawling to her 
Q:

serendipity

A:
  • Definition: something interesting or pleasant happening by chance
  • For example
    • What a serendipity that I gave birth to my child on Christmas Eve. 
    • Penicillin was discovered by serendipity 
  • synonyms: coincidence, by change, to happen to do sth.
  • Serendipity is not often used, more likely to say chance.
Q:

keen

A:
  • A polysemy because it got different senses
  1. Wanting (someone) to do something
  2. Very interested in an activity that you do often because you enjoy it
  3. Very strong: a keen interest in something
  4. About sense/ability
  5. Wind: cold & strong
  6. Blade: very sharp
  • Keen is used in collocations
    1. In sense 4: 
      • Keen sight, hearing etc. = makes you very good at seeing things, hearing things etc.
        • Eagles are known for their keen eyesight.
        • A dog has a very keen sense of smell
    2. In sense 1:
      • Be keen to do something
      • Very/particularly keen
      • Be keen on doing something
      • Be keen for someone to do something
    3. Adjective complementation
      • Keen on someone = jemanden mögen, liking soe
      • Melissa seems to be pretty keen on Maxi
    4. As keen as a mustard = to be a nice person
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Q:

exacerbate

A:
  • from Latin word exacerbate
  • Meaning: to make something worse, especially a disease or problem
  • Example: Her symptoms are exacerbated because the doctor gave her the wrong medicine.
  • Exacerbate is used in a negative way
  • Formality: 
    1. In terms of lexis: refers to other words from people that are highly educated
    2. In terms of syntax: hypotactic constructions: several subordinate clauses are embedded in the overall sentence structure <-> paratactic (opposition) contraction: main close after the other 
    3. In terms of topic: exacerbate is used for something serious
Q:

Manufacture on the bases of which I use apologize and when I use excuse?

A:

It´s About the perspective: the person who made a mistake apologizes, while the Person who has been affected excuses another person's behaviour.

Q:

exonerate

A:

verb

Meaning:

‘to state officially that someone who has been blamed for something is not guilty’

Word Patterns:

Exonerate of and from

Fully exonerated of = collocation  

Pronunciation:

Stress: to eXonerate

Examples:

a) Dwight was exonerated from the crime of taking the money after it was found that his fingerprints did not match those on the cashbox.

b) The report fully exonerated Baroness Thatcher and her government of any wrongdoing.(The Times 1996)

German: entlasten

Q:

drive

A:

Different Meanings & verb patterns:

1st Meaning: sb. Operates a vehicle so that it goes in a particular direction

Verb patterns: somebody drives sth- -> 1 Verb pattern

 2nd Verb pattern: sb. drives sth. somewhere

S-      V -     O-      A

-> more complex is followed by a compliment which indicates the direction

Meaning: sb forces sth to go into 

3rd verb patterns: sb/sth drives sb crazy/mad/insane/nuts

  S-          V-       O-      Co

-> have Object compliment

Meaning: sb/sth makes sb else get into an extreme emotional state

Meaning is determined by

  1. Number of functional sentence constituents
  2. Type of functional sentence constituents (distinguish between 2 and 3) 

 

Verb pattern 1: S-V-(O)

Verb pattern 2: S-V-O-A (adverbial)

Verb pattern 3: S-V-O-Co (object complement)

 

=> case of polysemy 

NOTE: verb patterns and meanings go hand in hand!

 

German: fahren oder jemand verrückt machen/ nerven

Q:

borrow vs. lend

A:
  • borrow = somebody needs something from the owner
  • lend = owner gives permission to the usage of the thing for a certain span of time

Example:

Can I borrow your bike for the weekend? Vs. Can you lend me your bike for the weekend?

Q:

What is a collocation?

A:

two words usually occur together and form an expression that is used to describe something (V-N; N-N, A-N, -A-V) to take above, deliver, give a speech, heavy trafiic

Q:

What is Polysemy?

A:

Definition: One word with several semantic meanings

Example: 

  • Bank = get money from or sit on it
  • Embarrassment (of pandas) = a group of pandas or something you feel ashamed of
  • Murder (of crawls) = a group of crawls or somebody that kills others
  • Bitch = woman that sleeps with many men or a female dog (UK)
Englisch Sprachpraxis

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