Programming at Universidade Nova de Lisboa

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Classes 

Instantiation

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Pandas: Key points Series 

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Pandas - DataFrames - Keypoints

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Pandas - Further Key points DataFrames

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Definition and usage List

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Definition & Usage Tuple

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Definition & Usage Dictionary
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Definition & Usage Sets

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Definition & Usage Loops

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Definition & Usage Functions

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Definition & Usage Pandas

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Definition & Usage Classes

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Exemplary flashcards for Programming at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa on StudySmarter:

Programming

Classes 

Instantiation

A class doesn’t accomplish anything simply by being defined. A class must be instantiated. In other words, we must create an instance of the class, in order to breathe life into the schematic.  

Instantiating a class looks a lot like calling a function.  We would be able to create an instance of our defined CoolClass as follows:

cool_instance = CoolClass() 

#cool_instance is the instance 

#CoolClass() is the class

Programming

Pandas: Key points Series 

  • Each series has only one data type (even if it is a more inclusive one, like object).

  • A list of indexes might be used (it has to have the same dimension).
  • It is possible to use dictionaries to create series.

Programming

Pandas - DataFrames - Keypoints

  • DataFrames may be seen as a tabular structure (named rows and columns).

  • We can define the indexes and columns as we create the dataframe.

  • It possible to take advantage of dictionaries and Series to create DataFrames.

  • To add the new columns of data it is not necessary to create a new dataframe.

Programming

Pandas - Further Key points DataFrames

  • It possible to print the dataframe (still shows too many lines, might be too “noisy”).

  • head() and tail() print the n top and bottom, respectively, lines of the dataframe.

  • Count returns the number of entries for each column that are not null.

  • Info returns the number of entries, the number of columns, their counts and the data type.

  • Describe returns basic statistical information of the numeric columns.

Programming

Definition and usage List
- ordered and mutable sequence of items enclosed by [] and seperated by ,
- an be accessed by an index
- it is changable and can be duplicated
- can consist of different types

Why using?
- want to have a simple collection of things of similar or different data types and be able to change them

Programming

Definition & Usage Tuple
- A ordered sequences of items that is unmutable.
is enclosed by () 
- it can be accessed by index 
- can be duplicated
-  can consist of different types
- but items are not changeable

why? Usage?
- if you want to store a collection of things that do not need to be changed 

Programming

Definition & Usage Dictionary
- a unordered and mutable sequence of key-value pairs enclosed by {} and separated by , 
- the key-value pairs can be accessed by the key
- the keys cant be duplicated
- keys can not be of any type —> type must be immutable (string, tuple, float etc.) 
- but values can be of any t
- to put it simple a dictionary is a storage that aims to map different keys to different values

why / Usage
- helps to make code more seamless
- need to associate two things its very helpful —> more structured 

Programming

Definition & Usage Sets
- unordered collection of values
- the collection itself is mutable but the elements are unchangeable
- they can not be accessed by an index and are not duplicatable 
- but they can contain elements of different types
- similar to sets in mathematics 

Why / Usage
- very useful to remove duplicate values from lists or tuples in an efficient way
- useful to perform common math operations e.g intersects or unions

Programming

Definition & Usage Loops

General:

- sth that happens multiple times

- two different types of loops

For loop

- a for loop iterates over a certain sequences of objects over and over again 

- as a result of that it executes a block of code repeadly for each individual sequence

- consists of 

   - for keyword

   - a variable that can be chosen by oneself its kind of a placeholder and takes the value the next object in iterable each time it loops

   - the iterable is the object to loop over


while loop

- a while loop iterates over a certain sequence over and over again as long as the condition is true

- consists of the while keyword and the condition that evaluates always to true or false


Why  / Usage

- if you need to do things several times loops in general safe a lot of lines of code because sth what would have been done manually can be done with a simple line of code --> code reusability

- give control of what to execute under defined conditions

- if you need to do things based on conditions

- supports by altering the flow of a program


Examples
- trade stock depending on current value
- execute 10 trades in stock

Programming

Definition & Usage Functions

- a function is simply a block of code that takes input, performs a certain task with that input using several operations and based on that returns an output

- Within a function basically, every kind of code that normally works outside the function can be added (loops, lists, tuples etc)

- to make a function work we need to call it --> returns values asked for

- Python offers certain build-in function like the print() function but it is also possible to create own function (custom functions)


Usage / Why

- reusability

- avoid repeating code thereby safes lines of code; function needs just to be called and input for arguements to be changed.

- decrease level of complexity

- easier to share code with others

- build logical structure by dividing taks in smaller pieces --> easier to read, test and reuse  insted we can 

Programming

Definition & Usage Pandas

- Open source BSD-licensed library

that provides data structures and analysis tools directly made for Python by doing so we can load data into a certain structure and extract values needed in an easy way.


Why  / Usage

- creates a very clear way of presenting data (e.g. Dataframes have table structure)

-  easy to read, to analyze, to transform, to manipulate and to print

- serveral features support this and enable to filter, segment or segretate (a little bit like excel) in the way needed

- shorten proceture of handling data

- able to handle a large amount of data --> able to import large number of data fast and efficient

- able to do some things not possible e.g. in dictionaries

Programming

Definition & Usage Classes

- kind of blueprint or template for creating objects


Usage / Why

- keep certain things common but allow for customization where needed --> inheritance --> possibilty to override if needed but all data are kept at certain spot

- abiltiy to change objects together

- ability to create an own data typ

- helps to make programs more organized and powerful

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