Remote Sensing at TU München

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Explain the information transfer in photography

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Explain the steps of aerial photograph orientation for evaluation with an analytical plotter

Exemplary flashcards for Remote Sensing at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Name the 3 possible interactions with the atmosphere

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Why are aerial photographs so important for a resource manager?    

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Explain the measurement methods from aerial photographs

Exemplary flashcards for Remote Sensing at the TU München on StudySmarter:

What is the stereoscopic parallax?

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Name and explain the radiation measurements

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Exemplary flashcards for Remote Sensing at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Define remote sensing

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Where does RM has its roots?

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What are the main branches of remote sensing?

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name the aerial film characteristics

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Why is an interpretation key so important?

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Exemplary flashcards for Remote Sensing at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Remote Sensing

Explain the information transfer in photography

  1. exposure
  2. latent image
  3. developing process
  4. fixation
  5. printing

Remote Sensing

Explain the steps of aerial photograph orientation for evaluation with an analytical plotter

inner orientation: establishment of the relation between the film photo and the camera system by identification of the fiducial marks and the exact length 


relative orientation = geometrical correct three dimensional model: compare two identical points (tie points) in 2 images


absolute orientation: 3D ground control points are identified in the photograph and related to a known scale. Then, they are levelled with respect to the horizontal reference datum of the terrain coordinate system

Remote Sensing

Name the 3 possible interactions with the atmosphere

1. absorption

2. transmission

3. reflection

Remote Sensing

Why are aerial photographs so important for a resource manager?    

1)  They are often the basis for topographic maps which are valuable to resource managers    


2)  Time freezing ability: Aerial photographs provide permanent and objective records of the existing conditions of the earth’s surface at a point of time, thus can be used for historical records.


a)  In this regard, we can analyze how ecosystems have changed due to factors such as climate change    

b)  This provide a snapshot of the dynamic interactions that occur on earth’s surface → in this way they provide data on large-scale ecosystems and can serve as a form of proof of the changing landscapes

3)  They provide fine spatial detail compared to electronic sensing devices which capture more spectral resolution which is more coarse


4)  More reasons: 

- To take measurements when compiling maps 

- Some landscape types are difficult to access by foot 

- Good for monitoring erosion features.

Remote Sensing

Explain the measurement methods from aerial photographs

one image: object height measurement by relief displacement


stereo pair: height level measurement applying the floating mark principle



Remote Sensing

What is the stereoscopic parallax?

The way we view an object depends on the ray propagation from the stereo pair to the eyes of an interpreter (= stereoscopic principle); 


thus, the position of an object might appear different depending on the angle from which it is viewed. This is called parallax


To counter this effect, one can take multiple photos of one object from multiple angles; this is called stereoscopic parallax.

Remote Sensing

Name and explain the radiation measurements

Radiant flux (Φ): time rate at which the energy passes a spatial reference


irradiance (E): energy reaching a surface


radiance (L):  energy reflected by a body


reflectance: fraction of incident radiation that is reflected as a function of wavelength = L/E

Remote Sensing

Define remote sensing

1978: Acquiring and/or evaluating information on an object or phenomenon without physical contact.

--> restricted to methods that employ electromagnetic energy


2005: the practice of obtaining data on a target, using distantly placed detection devices

Remote Sensing

Where does RM has its roots?

ca. 300 BC: Aristoteles --> philosophic "discurs" about the nature of light

Remote Sensing

What are the main branches of remote sensing?

Photogrammetry = object detection and measurement

  • Main goal: to reconstruct location, form and size 
  • based on geometric and mathematic relation between registration and objects 


Thematic Remote Sensing: image interpretation

  • Main goal: to identify objects and object classes as well as their status
  • based on spectral, textural, angular, temporal, polarisation signatures

Remote Sensing

name the aerial film characteristics

  • producer (Hersteller)
  • film type
  • spectral range
  • sensitivity
  • spatial resolution
  • gamma

Remote Sensing

Why is an interpretation key so important?

Visual interpretation tends to be subjective, and an interpretation key lays out a set of criteria that defines how to interpret the image.

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