Nanofabrication at TU München | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is required for high-contrast resist?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Low absorption of UV light → uniform distribution of photon energy through PR depth 
  • single or bilayer resists can achieve this
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Proximity effect correction 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • under different exposure dose create same energy everywhere to correct the intershape and intrashape proximity effects 
  • smaller exposure dose for dense features and higher exposure dose for isolated features


  • most simple and effective way to reduce proximity effect is to increase beam energy and reduce resist thickness
  • Other problems with high beam energy: Inefficient use of energy, Need of high exposure dose (i.e. dwell time), Damage to substrate material or buried structures
  • very thin resists not resistant to RIE difficult to achieve fine size beam




Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

In Projection Optical Lithography, light penetrating the lithography mask gets diffracted at the mask opening. This increases the lateral spread of the diffracted light. For which of the following mask opening size, is the lateral spread the largest?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

a = 0.5 µm

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the issues with DUV?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • optical lens material required is sensible to polarisation of light and can cause birefringence effects (blur)
  • finding transparent mask pellicles (material preventing contamination)
  • proper photoresists are difficult to find for DUV die to high absorption 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What new issues come up with wet imaging?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

maintain bubble-free liquid between lens and wafer by fast-moving stage

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Projection Lithography: What is the image resolution limited by?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • dependence on wavelength (gamma ~ spread)
  • dependence on slit (1/width ~ spread)
  • dependence on slit separation (distance ~ resolvability)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Four Key Parameters of Photoresists 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Sensitivity 

  • chemically amplified with „photoacid generator"
  • catalytic reaction ideal for relatively low photon power illumination
  • PAG can be deactivated by airborne amines diffusion into resist „T-topping“

Contrast

  • high-contrast optical imaging does not necessarily produce high contrast resist profile but they can compensate each other

Line Edge Roughness (LER) 

  • Empirical trend: higher sensitivity of resist yields larger LER

Etch Resistance (ER)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are Excimer Lasers?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

pulsed gas discharge in the deep UV range with high photon energy and short wavelength

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is required by the nanofabrication process?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

highly parallel

fast

reliable

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Porjection Lithography: Which qualities are wanted to achieve best image resolution?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • short wavelength
  • large NA
  • small k1
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

probe lithography

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • probes of micro or nanometer sizes replace the conventional mechanical cutting or milling tools 
  • sequential manner
  • non-solid probes which expose polymer resist or solid probes which directly manipulate atoms 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

EUV masks

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • highly reflective like the optics
  • additional absorber layer on top
  • very sensible to any defects on the absorver layer
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

What is required for high-contrast resist?

A:
  • Low absorption of UV light → uniform distribution of photon energy through PR depth 
  • single or bilayer resists can achieve this
Q:

Proximity effect correction 


A:
  • under different exposure dose create same energy everywhere to correct the intershape and intrashape proximity effects 
  • smaller exposure dose for dense features and higher exposure dose for isolated features


  • most simple and effective way to reduce proximity effect is to increase beam energy and reduce resist thickness
  • Other problems with high beam energy: Inefficient use of energy, Need of high exposure dose (i.e. dwell time), Damage to substrate material or buried structures
  • very thin resists not resistant to RIE difficult to achieve fine size beam




Q:

In Projection Optical Lithography, light penetrating the lithography mask gets diffracted at the mask opening. This increases the lateral spread of the diffracted light. For which of the following mask opening size, is the lateral spread the largest?

A:

a = 0.5 µm

Q:

What are the issues with DUV?

A:
  • optical lens material required is sensible to polarisation of light and can cause birefringence effects (blur)
  • finding transparent mask pellicles (material preventing contamination)
  • proper photoresists are difficult to find for DUV die to high absorption 
Q:

What new issues come up with wet imaging?

A:

maintain bubble-free liquid between lens and wafer by fast-moving stage

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Projection Lithography: What is the image resolution limited by?

A:
  • dependence on wavelength (gamma ~ spread)
  • dependence on slit (1/width ~ spread)
  • dependence on slit separation (distance ~ resolvability)
Q:

Four Key Parameters of Photoresists 


A:

Sensitivity 

  • chemically amplified with „photoacid generator"
  • catalytic reaction ideal for relatively low photon power illumination
  • PAG can be deactivated by airborne amines diffusion into resist „T-topping“

Contrast

  • high-contrast optical imaging does not necessarily produce high contrast resist profile but they can compensate each other

Line Edge Roughness (LER) 

  • Empirical trend: higher sensitivity of resist yields larger LER

Etch Resistance (ER)

Q:

What are Excimer Lasers?

A:

pulsed gas discharge in the deep UV range with high photon energy and short wavelength

Q:

What is required by the nanofabrication process?

A:

highly parallel

fast

reliable

Q:

Porjection Lithography: Which qualities are wanted to achieve best image resolution?

A:
  • short wavelength
  • large NA
  • small k1
Q:

probe lithography

A:
  • probes of micro or nanometer sizes replace the conventional mechanical cutting or milling tools 
  • sequential manner
  • non-solid probes which expose polymer resist or solid probes which directly manipulate atoms 
Q:

EUV masks

A:
  • highly reflective like the optics
  • additional absorber layer on top
  • very sensible to any defects on the absorver layer
Nanofabrication

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