Introduction To Biological Imaging at TU München | Flashcards & Summaries

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Steps of k-space filling

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  • record signals as series of measurements of signal amplitude acquired over time
  • iterate with only one change = the phase encoding gradient (k-space) 
  • FT → get frequency vs amplitude for each of the rows 
  • each of the rows in the new recording is from the iteration, at a different point in time and each of the entries in the row is a measure of signal intensity 
  • compare the measurements taken in a single row using FT 
  • sperate the amplitudes from one row and sort them out in their correct spatial locations using FT 
  • get an image with frequency change in one dimension and phase change in the other dimension
Lösung ausblenden
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What are the advantages of FDM?

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1. Based on the differential form - no mathematical tinkering is necessary!

2. Simple implementation

3. Works well for simple geometries

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Advantage of confocal microscopy

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higher resolution as fluorescence

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What is T2 relaxation due to?

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  • Vanishing of Mxy
  • local alterations of the magnetic field due to individual magnetic moments. 
  • Vectors/spins fan out on xy due to the effect of neighbor spins

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Summary/Steps of FDM

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  1.  Use the differential formulation of the PDE

  2.  Discretize the domain by selecting a set of grid points

  3. Approximate the differential operator by suitable algebraic differences

  4. Build a matrix for the differential equation with the given discretization.

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Fields of application of MRI and its uses in that field

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  • Clinical radiology: diagnostics, therapy, monitoring
  • Clinical research studies: disease pathophysiology, therapy monitoring clinical trials
  • Preclinical research studies: drug discoveries
  • Neuroscience: Neuronal activation and connectivity
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Disadvantages FDM

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1. Handling curved boundaries is problematic

2. Difficult to handle material discontinuities

3. Grid refinement is not straightforward

4. No energy conservation

5. Cannot handle non-smooth terms

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How does confocal microscopy work (around scattering)?

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  • photons scattered outside won’t be detected because of the pinhole

  • only photons coming from focal point pass through

  • Light from the laser is scanned across the specimen by the scanning mirrors. Optical sectioning occurs as the light passes through a pinhole on its way to the detector.

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What are the ranges of resolution and imaging depth in microscopy?

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  • Resolution: 0,1µm to 1µm (of microscopes: around 0,5µm

  • Imaging depth: 0,1mm to 10cm

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Example of bioluminescence imaging

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injected luc labeled neural progenitor cells migrate across the brain midline attracted by a contralaterally implanted glioma (tumor).

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Biopsy Definition/Steps

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Taking pieces of tissue → slicing it very thin slices around 10µm → staining it → putting it under the microscope

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How to label cells with fluorescence?

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Fluorescent proteins are responsible with their ribosomes for the fluorescence → labeling the cells by integrating the proteins in the samples

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Q:

Steps of k-space filling

A:
  • record signals as series of measurements of signal amplitude acquired over time
  • iterate with only one change = the phase encoding gradient (k-space) 
  • FT → get frequency vs amplitude for each of the rows 
  • each of the rows in the new recording is from the iteration, at a different point in time and each of the entries in the row is a measure of signal intensity 
  • compare the measurements taken in a single row using FT 
  • sperate the amplitudes from one row and sort them out in their correct spatial locations using FT 
  • get an image with frequency change in one dimension and phase change in the other dimension
Q:

What are the advantages of FDM?

A:

1. Based on the differential form - no mathematical tinkering is necessary!

2. Simple implementation

3. Works well for simple geometries

Q:

Advantage of confocal microscopy

A:

higher resolution as fluorescence

Q:

What is T2 relaxation due to?

A:
  • Vanishing of Mxy
  • local alterations of the magnetic field due to individual magnetic moments. 
  • Vectors/spins fan out on xy due to the effect of neighbor spins

Q:

Summary/Steps of FDM

A:
  1.  Use the differential formulation of the PDE

  2.  Discretize the domain by selecting a set of grid points

  3. Approximate the differential operator by suitable algebraic differences

  4. Build a matrix for the differential equation with the given discretization.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Fields of application of MRI and its uses in that field

A:
  • Clinical radiology: diagnostics, therapy, monitoring
  • Clinical research studies: disease pathophysiology, therapy monitoring clinical trials
  • Preclinical research studies: drug discoveries
  • Neuroscience: Neuronal activation and connectivity
Q:

Disadvantages FDM

A:

1. Handling curved boundaries is problematic

2. Difficult to handle material discontinuities

3. Grid refinement is not straightforward

4. No energy conservation

5. Cannot handle non-smooth terms

Q:

How does confocal microscopy work (around scattering)?

A:
  • photons scattered outside won’t be detected because of the pinhole

  • only photons coming from focal point pass through

  • Light from the laser is scanned across the specimen by the scanning mirrors. Optical sectioning occurs as the light passes through a pinhole on its way to the detector.

Q:

What are the ranges of resolution and imaging depth in microscopy?

A:
  • Resolution: 0,1µm to 1µm (of microscopes: around 0,5µm

  • Imaging depth: 0,1mm to 10cm

Q:

Example of bioluminescence imaging

A:

injected luc labeled neural progenitor cells migrate across the brain midline attracted by a contralaterally implanted glioma (tumor).

Q:

Biopsy Definition/Steps

A:

Taking pieces of tissue → slicing it very thin slices around 10µm → staining it → putting it under the microscope

Q:

How to label cells with fluorescence?

A:

Fluorescent proteins are responsible with their ribosomes for the fluorescence → labeling the cells by integrating the proteins in the samples

Introduction to Biological Imaging

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