Introduction to Biological Imaging at TU München

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What are the advantages of FDM?

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Summary/Steps of FDM

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Biological Imaging at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Biopsy Definition/Steps

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FEM Disadvantages

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Example of bioluminescence imaging

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What are the ranges of resolution and imaging depth in microscopy?

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Resolution depending on the propagation distance under the effect of scarttering

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Biological Imaging at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Scattering components (in biological tissue)

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Ways to use fluorescence in microscopy

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How to label cells with fluorescence?

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Disadvantages FDM

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FEM Advantages

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Biological Imaging at the TU München on StudySmarter:

Introduction to Biological Imaging

What are the advantages of FDM?

1. Based on the differential form - no mathematical tinkering is necessary!

2. Simple implementation

3. Works well for simple geometries

Introduction to Biological Imaging

Summary/Steps of FDM

  1.  Use the differential formulation of the PDE

  2.  Discretize the domain by selecting a set of grid points

  3. Approximate the differential operator by suitable algebraic differences

  4. Build a matrix for the differential equation with the given discretization.

Introduction to Biological Imaging

Biopsy Definition/Steps

Taking pieces of tissue → slicing it very thin slices around 10µm → staining it → putting it under the microscope

Introduction to Biological Imaging

FEM Disadvantages

1. Not so simple implementation

2. Still no energy conservation

Introduction to Biological Imaging

Example of bioluminescence imaging

injected luc labeled neural progenitor cells migrate across the brain midline attracted by a contralaterally implanted glioma (tumor).

Introduction to Biological Imaging

What are the ranges of resolution and imaging depth in microscopy?

  • Resolution: 0,1µm to 1µm (of microscopes: around 0,5µm

  • Imaging depth: 0,1mm to 10cm

Introduction to Biological Imaging

Resolution depending on the propagation distance under the effect of scarttering

    • 0-0,1mm: MFT (Mean free path), all photons experience at least one scattering event

    • 0,1-1,0mm: increasing photon-scattering

    • >1,0mm: TMFT (transport mean free path), random walk

Introduction to Biological Imaging

Scattering components (in biological tissue)

* reflection by the plasma multilayer

* scattering by mitochondria (1µm, the same size as bacteria)

Introduction to Biological Imaging

Ways to use fluorescence in microscopy

a. Nonspecific probes: detect physiology (blood volume, angiogenesis)

b. Targeted probes: used to localize proteins and determine structure

c. Activatable 'smart' sensor probes: used to localize enzymes and determine the function

Introduction to Biological Imaging

How to label cells with fluorescence?

Fluorescent proteins are responsible with their ribosomes for the fluorescence → labeling the cells by integrating the proteins in the samples

Introduction to Biological Imaging

Disadvantages FDM

1. Handling curved boundaries is problematic

2. Difficult to handle material discontinuities

3. Grid refinement is not straightforward

4. No energy conservation

5. Cannot handle non-smooth terms

Introduction to Biological Imaging

FEM Advantages

1. Works well for curved boundaries geometries

2. Can handle non-smoothness

3. H-adaptivity

4. P-adaptivity

5. Handles material discontinuities well

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