Biological Neuron at TU München | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Biological Neuron an der TU München

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Neuron 3 Main Components -

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Soma: Cell body containing the nucleusDentrites: Recieve the electrical impulses from other neurons through synapsesAxon: The axon emerges from the soma at the axon-hillock and conducts electrical impulses to other neurons

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Types of neurons -

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sensory, motor, interneurons

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Elctrophysiology of a neuron -

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-Information processing and exchange is based on elctrical signals-charges are carried by Ions{Na+, K+, Cl-} not by electrons

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Function of cell membrane -

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bilipid layer that insulates the inside from the outsidecell membrance acts as capacitor

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Function of Ion channels -

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Ion channels are proteins in the membrance which can open and close. They act like gates for a passive exchange of ions.Acts like a resistance in the membrane.-Selectivity: Selective ion channcels only let a specifíc type of ion pass.-Regulation: the opening and closing of the ion channel can be gated by binding of ligand, by voltage or by mechanical force

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Resting membrane potential -

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the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active. In this equilibrium state, which is the result of the sum of the different ion flows between the inside and outside of the neuons at the idle state.-Chemical Gradient: By default ions cross the channels to decrease the chemical gradient(concentration difference) between the inside and outside-Voltage: The ion flow implies a flow of charges which results in a voltage. The voltage gradient is the opposite of the charge gradient-Resting Membrane Potential: Voltage at the equilibrium point of the chemical- and the voltage-gradient

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Action Potential (AP) -

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Neurons exchange information through electrical impulses calles action potentials or spikes

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AP - Depolarization -

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When a neuron receives a spike from presynaptic afferent, sodium channels open, positive charge flows into neuron and membrane potential increases.

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AP - Spike -

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When voltage reaches threshold , large number of voltage-gated sodium channels open and membrane voltage quickly increases to peak voltage(action potential)

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AP - Hyperpolarization -

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After some delay, voltage-gated potassium channels open and membrande voltage falls back below resting state

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AP - Refactor period -

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Time during which the neuron recovers the resting membrane potential. 2 Phases:-Absolut refactor period: Dead time after a spike where neuron cant emit new spike-Relative refactor period: Eliciting spike requires stronger stimuli comparted to resting state of neuron

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Definition of Computational Neuroscience -

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Field of Theory in which mathematical tools and theories are used to investigate brain function. It can also incorporate electrical engineering, computer science and physics to understand how the neurons system process information.

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Q:

Neuron 3 Main Components -

A:

Soma: Cell body containing the nucleusDentrites: Recieve the electrical impulses from other neurons through synapsesAxon: The axon emerges from the soma at the axon-hillock and conducts electrical impulses to other neurons

Q:

Types of neurons -

A:

sensory, motor, interneurons

Q:

Elctrophysiology of a neuron -

A:

-Information processing and exchange is based on elctrical signals-charges are carried by Ions{Na+, K+, Cl-} not by electrons

Q:

Function of cell membrane -

A:

bilipid layer that insulates the inside from the outsidecell membrance acts as capacitor

Q:

Function of Ion channels -

A:

Ion channels are proteins in the membrance which can open and close. They act like gates for a passive exchange of ions.Acts like a resistance in the membrane.-Selectivity: Selective ion channcels only let a specifíc type of ion pass.-Regulation: the opening and closing of the ion channel can be gated by binding of ligand, by voltage or by mechanical force

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Q:

Resting membrane potential -

A:

the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active. In this equilibrium state, which is the result of the sum of the different ion flows between the inside and outside of the neuons at the idle state.-Chemical Gradient: By default ions cross the channels to decrease the chemical gradient(concentration difference) between the inside and outside-Voltage: The ion flow implies a flow of charges which results in a voltage. The voltage gradient is the opposite of the charge gradient-Resting Membrane Potential: Voltage at the equilibrium point of the chemical- and the voltage-gradient

Q:

Action Potential (AP) -

A:

Neurons exchange information through electrical impulses calles action potentials or spikes

Q:

AP - Depolarization -

A:

When a neuron receives a spike from presynaptic afferent, sodium channels open, positive charge flows into neuron and membrane potential increases.

Q:

AP - Spike -

A:

When voltage reaches threshold , large number of voltage-gated sodium channels open and membrane voltage quickly increases to peak voltage(action potential)

Q:

AP - Hyperpolarization -

A:

After some delay, voltage-gated potassium channels open and membrande voltage falls back below resting state

Q:

AP - Refactor period -

A:

Time during which the neuron recovers the resting membrane potential. 2 Phases:-Absolut refactor period: Dead time after a spike where neuron cant emit new spike-Relative refactor period: Eliciting spike requires stronger stimuli comparted to resting state of neuron

Q:

Definition of Computational Neuroscience -

A:

Field of Theory in which mathematical tools and theories are used to investigate brain function. It can also incorporate electrical engineering, computer science and physics to understand how the neurons system process information.

Biological Neuron

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