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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 9 (Diagnose) (appr. 9%)


a) Which different methods of addressing are used in diagnostic communication ?



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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

(KWP2000)

  • Functional addressing
  • Physical Addressing



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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 1 (Communication) (appr. 8%)


c) Describe the „data-link layer“ of the OSI layer model.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Data bits to frames. The bits comming from the under layer (Transport layer) are organized in frames, so they can passed to the upper layer (Network layer).


Here, it's needed the physical address of the devices where the medium access control takes place.


The OSI Layers:

<put the photo>

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 8 (TCP/IP) (appr. 12%)


f) Which mechanisms can be introduced in Ethernet networks to transmit safety critical data ?


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

[if we want to eliminate those Jitter what can we do?

The Idea is to look for the usage of the network, but not in a dynamic way, that is not during run time, but during the design phase. Because we have safety critical data and we have to be sure it works correctly.


So we would look for that usage, and try to implement some kind of TDMA, so give time schedules to individual nodes, in order to implement the timing we can use messages that start in certain time cycle, based in some time table, controlling the number of messages sent on the network. 


So we can assure that there are no more messages sent than the system can handle. Which again requires the nodes to monitor the amount of data that their are sending. So they should manage the access to the network. (access manager to the network)


At the end is create a whole new mechanism.

]


_________________________________

Check how many packages were lost, and then estimate how much the data was damaged.


(It's valid but we need a more control way to organised the data traffic in the medium, for safety critical systems, it's better to shift this methods in the design phase of the system, non in the actual run time of the system)


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 1 (Communication) (appr. 8%)


b) Describe the „physical layer“ of the OSI layer model.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Signals over the physical cable to Databits. In that way the information over the transport medium is prepared for the upper layer (Data Link Layer). In most of the cases a transceiver is used to achieved that.


The OSI Layers:

<put the photo>



Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 3 (LIN) (appr. 9%)


b) Which errors can be distinguished on the LIN Bus.


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A LIN-Node ca detect six different type of errors:


1) Bit Errors

2) Checksum

3) Identifier-Parity

4) Slave-Not-Responding

5) Inconsistent-Synchronization-Field

6) Physical-Bus


There is not a specified error management.


______________________________


1) Bit Errors (it would be collisions on the bus) - can only be detected by the sender.


2) Checksum (Result of EMI) (Either the data or the checksum have been corrupted)


3) Identifier-Parity (When a identifier from the Master have been corrupted, so a slave could not respond)


4) Slave-Not-Responding 


5) Inconsistent-Synchronization-Field (slave is unable to sznchronized)


6) Physical-Bus



Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 3 (LIN) (appr. 9%)


b) Together with the LIN Bus system a workflow has been defined. Which description files are

essential for this workflow, describe the content.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • LDF - LIN Description File: The complet characteristics of the LIN Cluster are defined, including the communication. 


  • NCF -Node Capability File: Describes the functional characteristic of a LIN slave. i.e. The frame and signal definition, and the diagnostic functions.


___________________________


NCF - (of one specific slave) (those can offered after as a "Off the Shell" Slaves and those NCF-Files can be read into the System Defining Tool).


LDF - at the output of the System Defining Tool. By using the LDF, the software components for the LIN communication can be generated automatically. Additionally is used to generate the parameters for the analysis tools.


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 4 (CAN) (appr. 14%)


a) Which media access control method is used in the CAN Bus ?




Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

CSMA/CA - Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance


____________________


Through this method the arbitration is done, while the data is transmitted by observing the actual bit on the bus and the bit being transmitted, at that point the respective node losing priority will stop transmission.


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 4 (CAN) (appr. 14%)


b) When do you see a remote frame on the CAN Bus?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

When a node (ECU) needs certain information (message/an specific identifier) from another ECU, it asks for it through a remote frame.


[A station acting as a receiver can initiate the transmission of the respective data by its source by sending a Remote Frame]


____________________________

____________________________


Frames:


  • Data Frame: A frame containing node data for transmission.
  • Remote Frame: A frame requesting the transmission of a specific identifier (certain info.)
  • Error Frame: A Frame transmitted by any node detecting an error.
  • Overload frame: A frame to inject a delay between data and/or remote frame.




Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN


Assignment 4 (CAN) (appr. 14%)


e) Which error detection checks are carried on the CAN Bus?


     1) On Frames



      2) On Bit level



Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1) On Frames

  • CRC -  Cycle Redundancy Check: which helps to verify the data being sent.
  • Message Frame Check


2) On Bit Level

  • Monitoring (Transmitters compare the bit levels to be transmitted with the bit levels detected on the bus).
  • Bit Stuffing.
  • Acknowledgment bit, which verifies that a Frame was correctly received.


______________


Others doesn't expect on the answer:

  • Stop of transmission (Error Flag) or Error Frame.
  • Automatic Repeat Request.
  • Switch off of output drivers after consecutive errors been transmitted by the same node.



Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 5 (Flexray) (appr. 15%)


a) Describe the following term in relation to time synchronization.


1) Offset correction



2) Drift Correction




Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1) Offset correction

  • Fixed Time difference between two clocks, to be corrected in order to synchronize them.


2) Drift Correction

  • Rate of change of the time difference between two clocks, due to differences in the oscillators and environmental conditions.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 5 (Flexray) (appr. 15%)


c) Describe the characteristics of the Flexray Bus system.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

(Requirements resulting of X-by Wire)


  • Capability for redundant communication channels.
  • Deterministic bus access. (max. Latency)
  • Guaranteed transmission with minimum time invariance (Jitter!)
  • Collision free bus access
  • Optional geometric redundancy (via network topology.


___________________________

Further information:  these characteristics comes from -->>

It uses as centralized medium acces control a time slice method, that is TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access.




Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Assignment 6 (MOST) (appr. 16%)


a) Which topology is used in the MOST Bus System?


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

First of all it's a logical ring.

Normally realized as a physical ring, other topologies required additional components.


It can be enhanced to a double ring, but it's not normal in automotive.

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

Assignment 9 (Diagnose) (appr. 9%)


a) Which different methods of addressing are used in diagnostic communication ?



A:

(KWP2000)

  • Functional addressing
  • Physical Addressing



Q:

Assignment 1 (Communication) (appr. 8%)


c) Describe the „data-link layer“ of the OSI layer model.

A:

Data bits to frames. The bits comming from the under layer (Transport layer) are organized in frames, so they can passed to the upper layer (Network layer).


Here, it's needed the physical address of the devices where the medium access control takes place.


The OSI Layers:

<put the photo>

Q:

Assignment 8 (TCP/IP) (appr. 12%)


f) Which mechanisms can be introduced in Ethernet networks to transmit safety critical data ?


A:

[if we want to eliminate those Jitter what can we do?

The Idea is to look for the usage of the network, but not in a dynamic way, that is not during run time, but during the design phase. Because we have safety critical data and we have to be sure it works correctly.


So we would look for that usage, and try to implement some kind of TDMA, so give time schedules to individual nodes, in order to implement the timing we can use messages that start in certain time cycle, based in some time table, controlling the number of messages sent on the network. 


So we can assure that there are no more messages sent than the system can handle. Which again requires the nodes to monitor the amount of data that their are sending. So they should manage the access to the network. (access manager to the network)


At the end is create a whole new mechanism.

]


_________________________________

Check how many packages were lost, and then estimate how much the data was damaged.


(It's valid but we need a more control way to organised the data traffic in the medium, for safety critical systems, it's better to shift this methods in the design phase of the system, non in the actual run time of the system)


Q:

Assignment 1 (Communication) (appr. 8%)


b) Describe the „physical layer“ of the OSI layer model.


A:

Signals over the physical cable to Databits. In that way the information over the transport medium is prepared for the upper layer (Data Link Layer). In most of the cases a transceiver is used to achieved that.


The OSI Layers:

<put the photo>



Q:

Assignment 3 (LIN) (appr. 9%)


b) Which errors can be distinguished on the LIN Bus.


A:

A LIN-Node ca detect six different type of errors:


1) Bit Errors

2) Checksum

3) Identifier-Parity

4) Slave-Not-Responding

5) Inconsistent-Synchronization-Field

6) Physical-Bus


There is not a specified error management.


______________________________


1) Bit Errors (it would be collisions on the bus) - can only be detected by the sender.


2) Checksum (Result of EMI) (Either the data or the checksum have been corrupted)


3) Identifier-Parity (When a identifier from the Master have been corrupted, so a slave could not respond)


4) Slave-Not-Responding 


5) Inconsistent-Synchronization-Field (slave is unable to sznchronized)


6) Physical-Bus



Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Assignment 3 (LIN) (appr. 9%)


b) Together with the LIN Bus system a workflow has been defined. Which description files are

essential for this workflow, describe the content.


A:
  • LDF - LIN Description File: The complet characteristics of the LIN Cluster are defined, including the communication. 


  • NCF -Node Capability File: Describes the functional characteristic of a LIN slave. i.e. The frame and signal definition, and the diagnostic functions.


___________________________


NCF - (of one specific slave) (those can offered after as a "Off the Shell" Slaves and those NCF-Files can be read into the System Defining Tool).


LDF - at the output of the System Defining Tool. By using the LDF, the software components for the LIN communication can be generated automatically. Additionally is used to generate the parameters for the analysis tools.


Q:

Assignment 4 (CAN) (appr. 14%)


a) Which media access control method is used in the CAN Bus ?




A:

CSMA/CA - Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance


____________________


Through this method the arbitration is done, while the data is transmitted by observing the actual bit on the bus and the bit being transmitted, at that point the respective node losing priority will stop transmission.


Q:

Assignment 4 (CAN) (appr. 14%)


b) When do you see a remote frame on the CAN Bus?


A:

When a node (ECU) needs certain information (message/an specific identifier) from another ECU, it asks for it through a remote frame.


[A station acting as a receiver can initiate the transmission of the respective data by its source by sending a Remote Frame]


____________________________

____________________________


Frames:


  • Data Frame: A frame containing node data for transmission.
  • Remote Frame: A frame requesting the transmission of a specific identifier (certain info.)
  • Error Frame: A Frame transmitted by any node detecting an error.
  • Overload frame: A frame to inject a delay between data and/or remote frame.




Q:


Assignment 4 (CAN) (appr. 14%)


e) Which error detection checks are carried on the CAN Bus?


     1) On Frames



      2) On Bit level



A:

1) On Frames

  • CRC -  Cycle Redundancy Check: which helps to verify the data being sent.
  • Message Frame Check


2) On Bit Level

  • Monitoring (Transmitters compare the bit levels to be transmitted with the bit levels detected on the bus).
  • Bit Stuffing.
  • Acknowledgment bit, which verifies that a Frame was correctly received.


______________


Others doesn't expect on the answer:

  • Stop of transmission (Error Flag) or Error Frame.
  • Automatic Repeat Request.
  • Switch off of output drivers after consecutive errors been transmitted by the same node.



Q:

Assignment 5 (Flexray) (appr. 15%)


a) Describe the following term in relation to time synchronization.


1) Offset correction



2) Drift Correction




A:

1) Offset correction

  • Fixed Time difference between two clocks, to be corrected in order to synchronize them.


2) Drift Correction

  • Rate of change of the time difference between two clocks, due to differences in the oscillators and environmental conditions.
Q:

Assignment 5 (Flexray) (appr. 15%)


c) Describe the characteristics of the Flexray Bus system.

A:

(Requirements resulting of X-by Wire)


  • Capability for redundant communication channels.
  • Deterministic bus access. (max. Latency)
  • Guaranteed transmission with minimum time invariance (Jitter!)
  • Collision free bus access
  • Optional geometric redundancy (via network topology.


___________________________

Further information:  these characteristics comes from -->>

It uses as centralized medium acces control a time slice method, that is TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access.




Q:

Assignment 6 (MOST) (appr. 16%)


a) Which topology is used in the MOST Bus System?


A:

First of all it's a logical ring.

Normally realized as a physical ring, other topologies required additional components.


It can be enhanced to a double ring, but it's not normal in automotive.

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