Rechnerstrukturen at Technische Universität Wien | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Rechnerstrukturen an der Technische Universität Wien

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Name 4 Classes of Computer.

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  1. Personal computers
    general purpose, variety of software
    subject of cost/performance tradeoff
  2. Server computers
    Network based
    high capacity, performance, reliability
  3. Supercomputers
    high-end scientific and engineering calculations
    highest capability but represent a small fraction of the overall computer market
  4. Embedded computers
    Hidden as components of systems
    Stringent power/performance/cost constraints
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What's the Throughput?

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The total work done per unit time.

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What's the Elapsed time?

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The total response time, including all aspects

--> Processing, I/O, OS overhead, idle time

It determines the system performance.


Note: Different programs are affected differently by CPU and system performance

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What's the Instruction Set Architecture?

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It is an abstract interface between the hardware and the lowest-level software that encompasses all the information necessary to write a machine language program that will run correctly, including instructions, registers, memory access, I/O,...

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What does operating memory require?

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It requires loads and stores.

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What are the six steps of Procedure Calling?

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Steps required
1. Place parameters in registers x10 to x17
2. Transfer control to procedure
3. Acquire storage for procedure
4. Perform procedure’s operations
5. Place result in register for caller
6. Return to place of call (address in x1)

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What is a procedure?

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A stored subroutine that performs a specific task based on the parameters with which it is provided.


Anm: Es ist vergleichbar mit einer Funktion.

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What's the response time?

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How long it takes to do a task

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What is an Instruction Set?

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The repertoire of instructions of a computer

Different computers have different instruction sets

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What is a data race?

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Two memory accesses form a data race if they are from different threads to the same location, at least one is a write, and they occure one after another.

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What' the meaning of CPU time?
What does it include?

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It is the time spent processing a given job.

It comprises user CPU time and system CPU time.


Note: Different programs are affected differently by CPU and system performance

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What are the Design Principles?

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  1. Simplicity favors regularity
  2. Smaller is fast
  3. Good design demands good compromises

Make the common case fast.

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Q:

Name 4 Classes of Computer.

A:
  1. Personal computers
    general purpose, variety of software
    subject of cost/performance tradeoff
  2. Server computers
    Network based
    high capacity, performance, reliability
  3. Supercomputers
    high-end scientific and engineering calculations
    highest capability but represent a small fraction of the overall computer market
  4. Embedded computers
    Hidden as components of systems
    Stringent power/performance/cost constraints
Q:

What's the Throughput?

A:

The total work done per unit time.

Q:

What's the Elapsed time?

A:

The total response time, including all aspects

--> Processing, I/O, OS overhead, idle time

It determines the system performance.


Note: Different programs are affected differently by CPU and system performance

Q:

What's the Instruction Set Architecture?

A:

It is an abstract interface between the hardware and the lowest-level software that encompasses all the information necessary to write a machine language program that will run correctly, including instructions, registers, memory access, I/O,...

Q:

What does operating memory require?

A:

It requires loads and stores.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are the six steps of Procedure Calling?

A:

Steps required
1. Place parameters in registers x10 to x17
2. Transfer control to procedure
3. Acquire storage for procedure
4. Perform procedure’s operations
5. Place result in register for caller
6. Return to place of call (address in x1)

Q:

What is a procedure?

A:

A stored subroutine that performs a specific task based on the parameters with which it is provided.


Anm: Es ist vergleichbar mit einer Funktion.

Q:

What's the response time?

A:

How long it takes to do a task

Q:

What is an Instruction Set?

A:

The repertoire of instructions of a computer

Different computers have different instruction sets

Q:

What is a data race?

A:

Two memory accesses form a data race if they are from different threads to the same location, at least one is a write, and they occure one after another.

Q:

What' the meaning of CPU time?
What does it include?

A:

It is the time spent processing a given job.

It comprises user CPU time and system CPU time.


Note: Different programs are affected differently by CPU and system performance

Q:

What are the Design Principles?

A:
  1. Simplicity favors regularity
  2. Smaller is fast
  3. Good design demands good compromises

Make the common case fast.

Rechnerstrukturen

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Eine der Rechnerstrukturen Zusammenfassungen auf StudySmarter | Technische Universität Wien



atomic exchange or atomic swap?

Producing an Object Module

Provides information for building a complete

program from the pieces

  • Header: described contents of object module
  • Text segment: translated instructions
  • Static data segment: data allocated for the life of the program
  • Relocation info: for contents that depend on absolute location of loaded program
  • Symbol table: global definitions and external refs
  • Debug info: for associating with source code


Induction variable elimination

https://www.kvakil.me/venus/


Instruction Set


Instruction Set Architecture

Als Befehlssatzarchitektur, Befehlsarchitektur oder auch Programmiermodell, englisch Instruction Set Architecture bzw. als Akronym ISA, wird die gesamte nach außen sichtbare Architektur eines Prozessors verstanden. Sie erlaubt als Schnittstelle zwischen Software und Hardware eine vollständige Abstraktion der Hardware, da sie sich auf die Funktionalität des Prozessors beschränkt. Während also die Mikroarchitektur die Implementierung in Hardware definiert, spezifiziert die ISA das Verhalten des Prozessors für die Software.


Design Principle 1

Simplicity favours
regularity

Regularity makes implementation simpler

Simplicity enables higher performance at
lower cost

64-bit data is called a “doubleword”

32-bit data is called a “word”

Register number 0 (x0) is hardwired to 0

Design Principle 2: Smaller is faster


Each address identifies an 8-bit byte

Make the common case fast

1

Sign Extension

R-format Instructions

I-format Instructions

Design Principle 3: Good design demands good compromises

S-format Instructions


A compiler identifies basic
blocks for optimization
An advanced processor
can accelerate execution
of basic blocks


RISC-V Multiplicationen --> Wie funktionieren die???? (Folie L04 -


F04 - 14/52 Faster Division????


Amdahl’s Law?


Rechnerstrukturen

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