Cultural Studies at Technische Hochschule Nürnberg

Flashcards and summaries for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg

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Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

The Chinese Classic
When and how did the rise of Confucianism happen?

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

The Chinese classic
Some things about Dong Zhongshu (3 points)

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

The chinese classic
The imperial examination system: Development (name its use and dynasties)

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

The Chinese classic
The imperial examination system : Exam content

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

The Chinese classic
The imperial examination system: Impact on society

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

The chinese classic
Characteristics of the golden age

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

The Chinese classic
The silk road

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

The Chinese classic
Ruling principles of the first emperor of a unified China (Qin Shi Huang)

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

The Chinese classic
Standardization and unification aspects by the first emperor

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

China in Transition Time
Sino-British trade dispute in the 19th century and the opium trade

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

China in transition time
The first Opium War in 1840

Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

China in transition time
Second Opium War and further concession to western powers (Background, course of the war, Impact on China) 

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Exemplary flashcards for Cultural Studies at the Technische Hochschule Nürnberg on StudySmarter:

Cultural Studies

The Chinese Classic
When and how did the rise of Confucianism happen?
-Early stage of the Han Dynasty
-different schools have been revived again (Taoism and Confucianism)
-Emperor Wu accepted Dong Zhongshu´s proposal to raise Confucianism as the only political ideology
-Dong combined some modified taoistical elements (Ying & Yang) into his theory (three cardinal elements)

Cultural Studies

The Chinese classic
Some things about Dong Zhongshu (3 points)
-second most infuential thinker to the philosophical Confucianism after Confucius himself
-relationship between internal human nation and external morality in the society
-his commentary on the Four Books served as basis literature for the imperial civil service examinations over 700 years until 1905

Cultural Studies

The chinese classic
The imperial examination system: Development (name its use and dynasties)
-Examination system to select state officer candidates in civil service
-Han dynasty: early use of exam system in combination with recommendations
-Tang dynasty: exam system widely utilized as the major path to office
-Song dynasty: System was regularized and developed into a three-tier ladder (county->province->court exams)
-1905 (last decade of Qing dynasty)-abolition of the imperial examination system

Cultural Studies

The Chinese classic
The imperial examination system : Exam content
-based on knowledge of classic doctrine and literature, not technical expertise
-In Song dynasty content was narrowed and fixed on texts of Confucian/Neo-Confucian orthodoxy (4-5 books)
-Qualified candidates were generalists who mastered the language and shared common culture values & social norms

Cultural Studies

The Chinese classic
The imperial examination system: Impact on society
-create a relative fair and national-wide career development opportunity for all
-enable social advancement for people from lower social classes
-encourage national talents to pursue to a pragmatic and utilitarian path of life instead to contribute to scientific and idealistic achievement

Cultural Studies

The chinese classic
Characteristics of the golden age
-Enlightened political system, sound governance
-social stability and economic strength
-cultural and artistic prosperity
-territorial security and international prestige

Cultural Studies

The Chinese classic
The silk road
-trade routes established during the Han dynasty around 130 BC
-name comes from popularity of Chinese silk with Rome (Caesar, Cleopatra, Anthony)
-regularly used until 1453, until the Ottoman empire closed the routes and boycotted the trade with the West

Cultural Studies

The Chinese classic
Ruling principles of the first emperor of a unified China (Qin Shi Huang)
-Legalism became the endorsed ideology, represented by the premier minister Li, Shi
-eliminated Confucianism and other schools

Cultural Studies

The Chinese classic
Standardization and unification aspects by the first emperor
-Unifying Chinese characters
-standardizing measurement units
-unifying currencies
-standardizing public transportation systems

Cultural Studies

China in Transition Time
Sino-British trade dispute in the 19th century and the opium trade
-Growing Sino-British trade at begin of 19th century-> high trade deficit for Britain
-this led to shortage of British silver reserve, which impacted the national economy
-British east India Company sold Opium in exchange for silver
-huge number of Opium addicts under population, the growing opium business turned the trade deficit to the Chinese side

Cultural Studies

China in transition time
The first Opium War in 1840
-1839 Emperor Daoguang rejected proposal to legalise Opium trade and appointed viceroy Lin Zexu to ban the opium trade
-British government dispatched the Royal Navy with 16 warships and 4000 men to China

Consequences
-war started in June 1840, after a series of decisive defeats of Chinese army, China is forced to negotiate with Britain->gunboat diplomacy
-Nanjing Treaty signed in 1842: China has to open five treaty ports to foreign merchants and to cede Hong Kong Island to the British Empire for 99 years

Cultural Studies

China in transition time
Second Opium War and further concession to western powers (Background, course of the war, Impact on China) 
Background situation
-1850´s western powers looking for overseas market expansion
-Britain demanded China to re-negotiate the Nanjing Treaty

Course of the war
-Oct. 1856 Chinese marines seized the British cargo ship "Arrow" on suspicion of piracy
-12 Chinese crew members were arrested by Chinese authority and British flag was pulled down
-British consul in Canton demanded the release of the arrested crew members and an apology for the alleged insult to the British Flag
-Chinese Authority released 9 crew members but refused to apologize
-Royal Navy bombed Canton and war started
-1857 France joined the War on the British side, the two armies captured Canton
-1858 Treaty of Tianjin was signed by involving Britain, France, Russia and USA
-October 1860, the Anglo-French forces captured Beijing, burned down summer palaces

Impact on China
-China has to cede Kowloon to Britain and the left bank of the Amur river to Russia
-western powers got more rights, legalized opium trade, opened 10 ports for trade, established diplomatic legations, China has to pay indemnity to Britain and France
-Political pressure led to -< Self Strengthening Movement

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