Englisch Tenses at Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen | Flashcards & Summaries

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Present Simple
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Formed by the Infinitive of the verb with an S in the third Person (He, she, it)
I Walk to work every day - she walks to work every day
The negative sentence is formed with an aux. verb (Hilfsverb) do
I don't work today
The question is also formed with the aux. verb do and an Infinitive of the verb
Does he speak English?
Usage
Regular repeated actions in the present
Every day, Sometimes, always, usuallly, often, seldom, never, first...then

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Present Progressive
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am/ist/are+ing (present tense of to be and the gerund)
I am writing/he ist Reading/they are reading
I am not writing/ he is not reading/ they are not reading
Are you reading? Is he reading? Are they reading?
The question is formed much like in German - you turn the sentence round
Usage
Things that are happening at the time of speaking or writing. Temporary actions
Now, at the moment, Look! Listen!

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Present Perfect Progressive

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have/has been +ing (present perfect of have and gerund)

Positive             They have been working since 2 am

Negative           They have not been working

Question           Have they been working..?

 

Usage

Almost the same as the present perfect simple

All day, the whole day, how long, since, for

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Past Simple

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Verb stem + ed and irregulars(2nd Column of verb list)

Positive             They walked(regular)   They went (irregular)

Negative           The did not walk(didn`t)    They did not go.  

Note that after DID, the verb is always INFINITIVE

Question           Did they walk?   Did they go?

 

Usage

Things that started in the past and finished in the past!!

Use for when or where something happened

Use it for actions that started and finished in the past

Last, ago, in 1990, yesterday

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Future simple

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will + infinitive


Predictions (Vorhersagen) - but mainly for things that the person decides AT THAT MOMENT.  Spontaneous decisions.
 
 

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Other future tenses

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Present Simple 

used for TIMETABLES and schedules and these things ONLY.  

So if you look at a bus timetable and say - "The bus leaves at 3pm" then that is in the future for you, 

but the bus leaves every day at 3pm, so it does fit with what we know about the present simple for regular actions!  


Present Progressive 

Events which are planned or known ahead of (im Voraus) speaking AND predictions (Vorhersagen)

(I am having dinner with a friend tonight.)  


Present progressive in "going to" -the "going to" future

I am going to have dinner with a friend tonight.  

Both the present progressive used for future and the going to future are used for planned or known events in the future.   

There is very little, if any difference.   


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Past Perfect Simple

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had+III Form (past of have and past participle)

Positive              I had bought//They had bought 

Negative            I had not bought(hadn`t)//They had not bought(hadn`t)  

Question            Had she bought?/ had they bought?

 

Usage

Used for action that finished BEFORE another finished action in the past.

Already, just, never

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Past Perfect Progressive

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had been + ing (past perfect of have and gerund)

Positive            I had been painting/She had been painting

Negative          I had not been painting/she had not been painting( hadn`t been)

Question          Had you been painting?      

 

Usage

Use past perfect continuous to describe an action which started in the past and continued up to another point in the past

How long, since, for

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Present Perfect Simple

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has/have + III Form

(present of have and past participle)

Positive            I have bought a new dress/he has bought a new car

Negative          I have not bought  a new dress(I haven`t bought)/he has not  bought a new car (hasn`t bought)

Question          Have you bought  a new dress?/Has he bought a new car?

 

Usage

Used for things that started in the past and are still going on now - unfinished.

Use to say what happened

use it for events that started in the past and are continuing now

Use ever with the present perfect to ask about an experience in the past and never to talk about an experience you haven´t had

Ever, never, just, yet, already, so far, up to now, since, for, recently

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Future Perfect

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will have + III Form


Something that will be finished in the future.

(By 2035 the snow leopard will have made extinct by man hunting them)
 
 

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Future Progressive

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will be + ing


Something which will be in progress at a particular time in the future.
(I will be having dinner at 2 pm this afternoon)
 

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Past progressive

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was/were + ing (simple past of be and gerund)

Positive              He was walking down the street at 2 pm yesterday/They were walking down the street at 2pm yesterday.

Negative            He was not walking...(wasn`t)//They were not walking

Question            Was he walking?//Were they walking?

 

Usage

Things that were ongoing in the past at a particular time.

While

It is used to describe and action which was:

  1. Ongoing at a certain time in the past - At 2pm yesterday afternoon, I was playing football.    At 2pm the speaker was playing - it had not finished.  The past simple is NOT POSSIBLE for this, as the sentence would then mean that the football STARTED and FINISHED at 2pm.
  2. Two actions in the past which were happening at the same time. - While she was cleaning the kitchen, he was cleaning the bedroom. This makes it clear that the actions are parallel.  The simple past would NOT.
  3. An action which was ongoing in the past when another action stopped or interrupted it. - I was walking down the street when it started to snow.  This shows once again that at some point these two actions were taking place at the same time.  In comparison - I walked down the street and it started to snow does NOT show this.  This action happened one after another and the speaker has already finished the action of walking down the street
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Q:
Present Simple
A:
Formed by the Infinitive of the verb with an S in the third Person (He, she, it)
I Walk to work every day - she walks to work every day
The negative sentence is formed with an aux. verb (Hilfsverb) do
I don't work today
The question is also formed with the aux. verb do and an Infinitive of the verb
Does he speak English?
Usage
Regular repeated actions in the present
Every day, Sometimes, always, usuallly, often, seldom, never, first...then

Q:
Present Progressive
A:
am/ist/are+ing (present tense of to be and the gerund)
I am writing/he ist Reading/they are reading
I am not writing/ he is not reading/ they are not reading
Are you reading? Is he reading? Are they reading?
The question is formed much like in German - you turn the sentence round
Usage
Things that are happening at the time of speaking or writing. Temporary actions
Now, at the moment, Look! Listen!

Q:

Present Perfect Progressive

A:

have/has been +ing (present perfect of have and gerund)

Positive             They have been working since 2 am

Negative           They have not been working

Question           Have they been working..?

 

Usage

Almost the same as the present perfect simple

All day, the whole day, how long, since, for

Q:

Past Simple

A:

Verb stem + ed and irregulars(2nd Column of verb list)

Positive             They walked(regular)   They went (irregular)

Negative           The did not walk(didn`t)    They did not go.  

Note that after DID, the verb is always INFINITIVE

Question           Did they walk?   Did they go?

 

Usage

Things that started in the past and finished in the past!!

Use for when or where something happened

Use it for actions that started and finished in the past

Last, ago, in 1990, yesterday

Q:

Future simple

A:

will + infinitive


Predictions (Vorhersagen) - but mainly for things that the person decides AT THAT MOMENT.  Spontaneous decisions.
 
 

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Q:

Other future tenses

A:

Present Simple 

used for TIMETABLES and schedules and these things ONLY.  

So if you look at a bus timetable and say - "The bus leaves at 3pm" then that is in the future for you, 

but the bus leaves every day at 3pm, so it does fit with what we know about the present simple for regular actions!  


Present Progressive 

Events which are planned or known ahead of (im Voraus) speaking AND predictions (Vorhersagen)

(I am having dinner with a friend tonight.)  


Present progressive in "going to" -the "going to" future

I am going to have dinner with a friend tonight.  

Both the present progressive used for future and the going to future are used for planned or known events in the future.   

There is very little, if any difference.   


Q:

Past Perfect Simple

A:

had+III Form (past of have and past participle)

Positive              I had bought//They had bought 

Negative            I had not bought(hadn`t)//They had not bought(hadn`t)  

Question            Had she bought?/ had they bought?

 

Usage

Used for action that finished BEFORE another finished action in the past.

Already, just, never

Q:

Past Perfect Progressive

A:

had been + ing (past perfect of have and gerund)

Positive            I had been painting/She had been painting

Negative          I had not been painting/she had not been painting( hadn`t been)

Question          Had you been painting?      

 

Usage

Use past perfect continuous to describe an action which started in the past and continued up to another point in the past

How long, since, for

Q:

Present Perfect Simple

A:

has/have + III Form

(present of have and past participle)

Positive            I have bought a new dress/he has bought a new car

Negative          I have not bought  a new dress(I haven`t bought)/he has not  bought a new car (hasn`t bought)

Question          Have you bought  a new dress?/Has he bought a new car?

 

Usage

Used for things that started in the past and are still going on now - unfinished.

Use to say what happened

use it for events that started in the past and are continuing now

Use ever with the present perfect to ask about an experience in the past and never to talk about an experience you haven´t had

Ever, never, just, yet, already, so far, up to now, since, for, recently

Q:

Future Perfect

A:

will have + III Form


Something that will be finished in the future.

(By 2035 the snow leopard will have made extinct by man hunting them)
 
 

Q:

Future Progressive

A:

will be + ing


Something which will be in progress at a particular time in the future.
(I will be having dinner at 2 pm this afternoon)
 

Q:

Past progressive

A:

was/were + ing (simple past of be and gerund)

Positive              He was walking down the street at 2 pm yesterday/They were walking down the street at 2pm yesterday.

Negative            He was not walking...(wasn`t)//They were not walking

Question            Was he walking?//Were they walking?

 

Usage

Things that were ongoing in the past at a particular time.

While

It is used to describe and action which was:

  1. Ongoing at a certain time in the past - At 2pm yesterday afternoon, I was playing football.    At 2pm the speaker was playing - it had not finished.  The past simple is NOT POSSIBLE for this, as the sentence would then mean that the football STARTED and FINISHED at 2pm.
  2. Two actions in the past which were happening at the same time. - While she was cleaning the kitchen, he was cleaning the bedroom. This makes it clear that the actions are parallel.  The simple past would NOT.
  3. An action which was ongoing in the past when another action stopped or interrupted it. - I was walking down the street when it started to snow.  This shows once again that at some point these two actions were taking place at the same time.  In comparison - I walked down the street and it started to snow does NOT show this.  This action happened one after another and the speaker has already finished the action of walking down the street
Englisch Tenses

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