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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is exchanged in systems?

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Matter

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Name the Subsystems of Earth System 
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  • Atmosphere 
  • Lithosphere 
  • Hydrosphere 
  • Biosphere
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Characteristics of systems 
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  • Exchange of matter, energy, information
  • Behavior of elements at micro level determines characteristics of system as a whole
  • The whole is more than the sum of its parts“ (emergence)
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What is a system?
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SET of interacting or interdependent ELEMENTS & PROCESSES that form an integrated WHOLE which has a defined BOUNDARY

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Which are the major BIOMES?

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  1. Tropical Rainforest
  2. Tropical Savanna
  3. Grassland
  4. Desert
  5. Mediterranean
  6. Temperate Forest
  7. Coniferous Boreal Forest
  8. Tundra
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Why do we describe the Earth System as DYNAMIC ?

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Because the system and its subsystme are subject to constant change.

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Explain  Global Conveyer belt
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The global conveyer belt is a system of ocean currents that transport water with heat/energy and nutrients around the world. 
Is a 1000-year cycle  movement of the whole ocean circulation, driven by winds and the THC thermohaline circulation
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What is the Milankovitch theory?

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Milankovitch explained changes in the climate in the Quaternary (= glacial and interglacial periods / Ice Ages (last 2.6mn years)). His reasons can be explained in two interconnected arguments: 
- the movement of the earth's orbit (due to three main factors/processes)

- the summer's strength in the northern hemisphere

EARTH'S ORBIT: 

1. Eccentricity
•How much the orbit deviates from a perfect circle (ellipse)
2. Obliquity
•Axial tilt (between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees)
-> Lower obliquity leads to lower radiation in the polar regions
3. Precession
•Change in the orientation of the earth axis, not the angle itself, this causes wobbles in earth’s axis (called nutation)
•This causes changes in insolation leading to higher insolation in northern hemisphere and lower insolation in southern hemisphere in January and July

STRENGHT IN SUMMER HEMISPHERE: 

With higher insolation in the northern hemisphere (that concentrates the continental mass) a larger part of ice in Artic pole and the north part of the continents is melted ( ice melts faster over continental areas than over water) reducing the albedo capacity > positive feedback (more radiation is absorbed by the Earth's surface increasing the temperature which leads to more melting,  releasing of green gas effects (permafrost) > and higher temperature).


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Oxidation and reduction  in rock weathering


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Is a chemical weathering process. Oxidation of a variety of metals occurs within the weathering environment. 

Very common is iron oxidation: Fe2+ Fe3+ + e 

most common Iron Oxides: Goethite and hematite Fe2O3 (specially in the tropics)

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What type of factors can cause changes in Climate System?

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  1. internal variability ( Changes in the Interplay between the different sub-systems or spheres)
  2. external forcing: Can be extraterrestrial or terrestrial:
  • Extraterrestrial forces: 

- Sun's activity - strength - sun's spots -

- Earth orbit (s. Milankovitch). 

- Other (asteroids, meteorites and cosmic rays)

- Asteroids

- Cosmic rays

              

  • Terrestrial forces: 

- Plate tectonics > topography affects climate patterns 

     - Volcanism – eruptions lead to warming or cooling due to emission of aerosols/ashes
- Anthropogenic changes due to GHG emissions (Potentially most important impact since early 20th century)    Should human beings be considered external forcing?...

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What are the models and what are they for?

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TO UNDERSTAND the dynamics of the Earth System (dynamic system) and ESTIMATE FUTURE CHANGES, scientists use MODELS.

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What is the difference between weather and climate? 

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Weather
Current state of the atmosphere at a certain place and time>Precipitation, humidity, temperature, wind 


Climate
Average weather over a long time period at given place (30 yrs)

Weather is your mood and climate is your personality
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Q:

What is exchanged in systems?

A:

Matter

Q:
Name the Subsystems of Earth System 
A:
  • Atmosphere 
  • Lithosphere 
  • Hydrosphere 
  • Biosphere
Q:
Characteristics of systems 
A:
  • Exchange of matter, energy, information
  • Behavior of elements at micro level determines characteristics of system as a whole
  • The whole is more than the sum of its parts“ (emergence)
Q:
What is a system?
A:

SET of interacting or interdependent ELEMENTS & PROCESSES that form an integrated WHOLE which has a defined BOUNDARY

Q:

Which are the major BIOMES?

A:
  1. Tropical Rainforest
  2. Tropical Savanna
  3. Grassland
  4. Desert
  5. Mediterranean
  6. Temperate Forest
  7. Coniferous Boreal Forest
  8. Tundra
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Why do we describe the Earth System as DYNAMIC ?

A:

Because the system and its subsystme are subject to constant change.

Q:
Explain  Global Conveyer belt
A:
The global conveyer belt is a system of ocean currents that transport water with heat/energy and nutrients around the world. 
Is a 1000-year cycle  movement of the whole ocean circulation, driven by winds and the THC thermohaline circulation
Q:
What is the Milankovitch theory?

A:
Milankovitch explained changes in the climate in the Quaternary (= glacial and interglacial periods / Ice Ages (last 2.6mn years)). His reasons can be explained in two interconnected arguments: 
- the movement of the earth's orbit (due to three main factors/processes)

- the summer's strength in the northern hemisphere

EARTH'S ORBIT: 

1. Eccentricity
•How much the orbit deviates from a perfect circle (ellipse)
2. Obliquity
•Axial tilt (between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees)
-> Lower obliquity leads to lower radiation in the polar regions
3. Precession
•Change in the orientation of the earth axis, not the angle itself, this causes wobbles in earth’s axis (called nutation)
•This causes changes in insolation leading to higher insolation in northern hemisphere and lower insolation in southern hemisphere in January and July

STRENGHT IN SUMMER HEMISPHERE: 

With higher insolation in the northern hemisphere (that concentrates the continental mass) a larger part of ice in Artic pole and the north part of the continents is melted ( ice melts faster over continental areas than over water) reducing the albedo capacity > positive feedback (more radiation is absorbed by the Earth's surface increasing the temperature which leads to more melting,  releasing of green gas effects (permafrost) > and higher temperature).


Q:

Oxidation and reduction  in rock weathering


A:

Is a chemical weathering process. Oxidation of a variety of metals occurs within the weathering environment. 

Very common is iron oxidation: Fe2+ Fe3+ + e 

most common Iron Oxides: Goethite and hematite Fe2O3 (specially in the tropics)

Q:

What type of factors can cause changes in Climate System?

A:
  1. internal variability ( Changes in the Interplay between the different sub-systems or spheres)
  2. external forcing: Can be extraterrestrial or terrestrial:
  • Extraterrestrial forces: 

- Sun's activity - strength - sun's spots -

- Earth orbit (s. Milankovitch). 

- Other (asteroids, meteorites and cosmic rays)

- Asteroids

- Cosmic rays

              

  • Terrestrial forces: 

- Plate tectonics > topography affects climate patterns 

     - Volcanism – eruptions lead to warming or cooling due to emission of aerosols/ashes
- Anthropogenic changes due to GHG emissions (Potentially most important impact since early 20th century)    Should human beings be considered external forcing?...

Q:

What are the models and what are they for?

A:

TO UNDERSTAND the dynamics of the Earth System (dynamic system) and ESTIMATE FUTURE CHANGES, scientists use MODELS.

Q:
What is the difference between weather and climate? 

A:
Weather
Current state of the atmosphere at a certain place and time>Precipitation, humidity, temperature, wind 


Climate
Average weather over a long time period at given place (30 yrs)

Weather is your mood and climate is your personality
Management of Natural Resources Systems

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Eine der Management of Natural Resources Systems Zusammenfassungen auf StudySmarter | Technische Hochschule Köln

THE EARTH AS A SYSTEM

  • LECTURE 1: the Earth as a system

    a SYSTEM is a SET of interacting or interdependent ENTITIES which form a WHOLE that is defined by its elements and processes that coexist within a defined BOUNDARY

    CHARACTERISTICS OF SYSTEMS:

    • Exchange of matter, energy or information
    • Defined by its elements and processes within a defined boundary
    • the behavior of elements at micro-level determines characteristics of the system as a whole
    • „The whole is more than the sum of its parts“ (emergence)
    • TYPES OF SYSTEMS ACCORDING TO THE INTERCHANGE WITH EXTERIOR

    • Systems can be described as closed and open:

      • OPEN exchange of matter and energy
      • CLOSED exchange only energy
      • Thermodynamics distinguishes also isolated systems (theoretically) that have no interaction beyond the system boundary > there are no examples in nature.

      CHARACTERISTICS OF EARTH SYSTEM: (OPEN OR CLOSE)

      The Earth System is often described as a CLOSED SYSTEM (energy interchange> solar energy coming >Earh emits heat energy) but also as an OPEN SYSTEM if we consider meteors, cosmic dust (entering), and hydrogen (escaping from the atmosphere- Earth system).


      All the subsystems of the Earth system are OPEN because they interchange energy AND MATTER. Example the Biosphere:


    • WHY SYSTEM VIEW ( in environmental and Landscape planning )

    Why is system thinking essential to solve problems in the context of natural resource management?

    • To Understand the interactions between natural and human environment a holistic geographical view on earth is needed – everything is interlinked (nested systems!); there is not ONE problem but many. > labern -  interconexion
    • System thinking important to follow the leading concept of development based on the Rio 1992 Conference (Agenda 21): preserving the environment today and in the future while at the same time meeting human needs.
    • Thinking in Models: explicitly comprehended modelling where everything is interconnected - linked
    • thinking in Loops:  Think in interrelated, systematic structures, recognizing causal loops (groundwater extraction – increasing draught risk – digging deeper – increasing draught risk)
    • Thinking in dynamics:  Think in dynamic processes (delays, feedback loops, oscillations); self regulation / homeostasis
    • Understanding systems allows us to act “systematically”, meaning to take adequate actions steering systems: ability for practical system management and system control
    • Social-Ecological Systems

    • Ecosystem services link social and ecological systems

HIERARCHY OF SYSTEMS: Nested systems

Systems that enclose other systems and that are simultaneously enclosed by even other systems.

Social and ecological systems are structured in a nested hierarchy. Ecological knowledge resides in the link between each of the dynamic systems (Folkes and Berkes, 1998).

Shape of the Earth:

The bulge is the result of  a more rapid rotational speed at the equator.  way slower in the poles > Centrifugal force pulls Earth´s surface outward (Newton)

Polar circumference 40,008 km , Equatorial 40,075km .

"oblate ellipsoid" (radius 6,371 km, diameter)

COMPONENTS: Subsystems of the Earth:

  • Atmosphere
  • thin, gaseous veil surrounding the Earth, held by force of gravity
  • complex system of gases and suspended particles that behave in many ways like fluids
  • many of its constituents derived from the Earth by chemical and biochemical reactions
  • Lithosphere
  • solid inorganic portion of the Earth (composed of rocks, minerals and elements)
  • the outer surface and interior of the solid Earth
  • Hydrosphere
  • Contains all waters of the Earth, (oceans, glaciers, groundwater, etc.)
  • Water moves from one store to another by evaporation, condensation, runoff, precipitation, infiltration and groundwater flow (hydrologic cycle**)**
  • Biosphere
  • consists of all living organisms.
  • characterized by life in profusion, diversity, and ingenious complexity.
  • Cycling of matter involves metabolic reactions in organisms as well as many abiotic chemical reactions

EARTH SYSTEM CONCEPTS AND LANDSCAPE SYSTEM:

The Earth system is all parts of our planet and their interactions

SYSTEM THINKING

the Earth is a DYNAMIC system  (subject to constant change) with different subsystems that interact and are subject to natural dynamics and anthropogenic impacts.

Models help to understand these dynamics between coupled natural and human systems.

  • TO UNDERSTAND the dynamics of the Earth System (dynamic system)  and estimate future changes, scientists use MODELS. These models require a deep understanding of variables, processes, reactions, etc. Therefore measurements are taken to produce DATA that can feed, adjust and validate these models.
  • There are many approaches to understand the Earth system, considering coupled - linked - interrelated natural and human systems:

Management of Natural Resources Systems

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