Adult Psychopathology at Royal Holloway And Bedford New College | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Adult Psychopathology an der Royal Holloway and Bedford New College

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What are the main objectives of classifying mental health disorders?

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Clinical, Research or administrative settings

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What is the biomedical model? And what is it's aim?

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Biological factors eg genetics, infections and chemical imbalances lead to psychological symptoms

Aims to identify the biological problem so as to treat the psychological symptoms 

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Give evidence for a link between biology and  psychological factors

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A connection has been found between schizophrenia and certain genes


the link between depression and serotonin has long since been acknowledged


there is evidence that changes to the brain structures occur with Alzheimer's

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Evaluate the biomedical model - at least 1 positive and 1 negative

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positive: can lead to focused interventions, effective treatments that deliver results fast, no guilt or judgment


negative: simplistic and ignores environmental interaction and the factors of cognition and emotion, biological causes do not exist for all conditions, those with mental health disorders are placed inn a passive role through this model, treatments can have problematic side effects and can also be intrusive

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What are the behavioral approaches and how they applied

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behavioral approaches focus on how behaviours are acquired through learning and environmental factors. Only observable behaviours acknowledged. The ideas here are applied using classical conditioning operant conditioning and observational learning.

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Where  is the behavioural approach most often used

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Obesity, addiction, sexual behaviours et cetera

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Evaluate the behavioral approaches: at least one positive and one negative

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Positives: Can be extremely fast and effective for some problems, these approaches have grown to include motivation thoughts and goals


negative: some disorders can't be helped through these approaches for example schizophrenia, behavioural treatments can be insensitive and patients may resist

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What is the cognitive approach

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based on the metaphor of human brain as the computer this approach focuses on how information from the environment is processed to result in an emotional and cognitive experience

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Who were the two main contributors And what were their contributions to the cognitive approach?

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Ellis - Unhelpful cognitions and beliefs, applicable eg phobias, rational-emotive


Beck-theory of depression, triad of self the world in future

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 evaluate the cognitive approach

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Positive: evidence for cognitive biases in those with mental health conditions for example attention bias in phobias, today the best interventions for mental health disorders are cognitive behavioral therapy based


Negatives changing people's cognitive biases and fundamental beliefs is very difficult and the person really has to want to change, they work best when combined with behavioural approaches so clearly don't cover all areas

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Tell me about the psychodynamic approach

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Psychopathology comes from conflicts in the individual's unconscious, the earlier the conflict began the more severe the condition.There is a big emphasis on childhood experiences. Defence mechanisms act to defend us from the conflict

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What are the three ways that mental heath conditions have been classified historically?

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Phenomology - how does it manifest

Etiology - what causes it

Course - how does it evolve

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Q:

What are the main objectives of classifying mental health disorders?

A:

Clinical, Research or administrative settings

Q:

What is the biomedical model? And what is it's aim?

A:

Biological factors eg genetics, infections and chemical imbalances lead to psychological symptoms

Aims to identify the biological problem so as to treat the psychological symptoms 

Q:

Give evidence for a link between biology and  psychological factors

A:

A connection has been found between schizophrenia and certain genes


the link between depression and serotonin has long since been acknowledged


there is evidence that changes to the brain structures occur with Alzheimer's

Q:

Evaluate the biomedical model - at least 1 positive and 1 negative

A:

positive: can lead to focused interventions, effective treatments that deliver results fast, no guilt or judgment


negative: simplistic and ignores environmental interaction and the factors of cognition and emotion, biological causes do not exist for all conditions, those with mental health disorders are placed inn a passive role through this model, treatments can have problematic side effects and can also be intrusive

Q:

What are the behavioral approaches and how they applied

A:

behavioral approaches focus on how behaviours are acquired through learning and environmental factors. Only observable behaviours acknowledged. The ideas here are applied using classical conditioning operant conditioning and observational learning.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Where  is the behavioural approach most often used

A:

Obesity, addiction, sexual behaviours et cetera

Q:

Evaluate the behavioral approaches: at least one positive and one negative

A:

Positives: Can be extremely fast and effective for some problems, these approaches have grown to include motivation thoughts and goals


negative: some disorders can't be helped through these approaches for example schizophrenia, behavioural treatments can be insensitive and patients may resist

Q:

What is the cognitive approach

A:

based on the metaphor of human brain as the computer this approach focuses on how information from the environment is processed to result in an emotional and cognitive experience

Q:

Who were the two main contributors And what were their contributions to the cognitive approach?

A:

Ellis - Unhelpful cognitions and beliefs, applicable eg phobias, rational-emotive


Beck-theory of depression, triad of self the world in future

Q:

 evaluate the cognitive approach

A:

Positive: evidence for cognitive biases in those with mental health conditions for example attention bias in phobias, today the best interventions for mental health disorders are cognitive behavioral therapy based


Negatives changing people's cognitive biases and fundamental beliefs is very difficult and the person really has to want to change, they work best when combined with behavioural approaches so clearly don't cover all areas

Q:

Tell me about the psychodynamic approach

A:

Psychopathology comes from conflicts in the individual's unconscious, the earlier the conflict began the more severe the condition.There is a big emphasis on childhood experiences. Defence mechanisms act to defend us from the conflict

Q:

What are the three ways that mental heath conditions have been classified historically?

A:

Phenomology - how does it manifest

Etiology - what causes it

Course - how does it evolve

Adult Psychopathology

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