BIOL241 Exam 2 Study at Purdue University | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Monosomy

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Loss of 1 chromosome (2n-1)

*Results in Turner syndrome

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Trisomy

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Add. of a chromosome to diploid genome

*Results in Klinefelter syndrome &/or Down syndrome

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Nondisjuction

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  1. Mistakes in chromosome segregation during mitosis/meiosis
  2. causes aneuploidy
  3. historically important in chromosome theory
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What did Calvin Bridges prove?

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Genes reside on chromosomes --> showed that the white gene segregates w/ X chromosome, even when abnormal

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What were 2 predictions that fit the model of primary exceptional progeny?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. White-eyed females have XXY
  2. Sterile red-eyed males have X0
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Primary exceptional progeny model implications

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Y chromosome not needed for male fate. *Ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes determines sex*
  • Y chromosome needed for male fertility
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Polyploidy

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

More than 2 haploid sets of chromosomes are present

  • Prevalent in plants
  • naming based on # of sets of chromosomes found: triploid - 3n chromosomes, tetraploid - 4n, pentaploid - 5n, etc.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Autopolyploidy

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Add. of 1+ sets of chromosomes identical to haploid complement of same species

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Allopolyploidy

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Combine chromosome sets from 2 dif. (closely related) species as a result of interspecific matings

*Sterile hybrid undergoes nat. chromosomal doubling = fertile amphidiploid

**can be produced by somatic cell hybridization

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Raphanobrassica "Vegetable of the Proletariat"

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Experiment conducted by Gerogii Karpechenko with cabbages (n=9) and radish (n=9)

  • Goal: edible radish root and flavorful cabbage leaves
  • Result: radish leaves and cabbage root = inedible
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Deletion (in chromosome)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Chromosomal deficiency when a chromosome breaks and a fragment is lost

  • Could be terminal (1 break on chromosome terminus) or interstitial (2 breaks)
  • Ex: Cri-du-chat Syndrome
  • Can be seen in polytene chromosomes
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Pseudodominance

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  • w+/w+ females have red eyes
  • w-/w+ females have red eyes (w- is recessive)
  • w-/w- females have white eyes
  • w-/Df(X)N females have white eyes (some Notch deletions). w- (recessive mutation) expression = pseudodominance
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Q:

Monosomy

A:

Loss of 1 chromosome (2n-1)

*Results in Turner syndrome

Q:

Trisomy

A:

Add. of a chromosome to diploid genome

*Results in Klinefelter syndrome &/or Down syndrome

Q:

Nondisjuction

A:
  1. Mistakes in chromosome segregation during mitosis/meiosis
  2. causes aneuploidy
  3. historically important in chromosome theory
Q:

What did Calvin Bridges prove?

A:

Genes reside on chromosomes --> showed that the white gene segregates w/ X chromosome, even when abnormal

Q:

What were 2 predictions that fit the model of primary exceptional progeny?

A:
  1. White-eyed females have XXY
  2. Sterile red-eyed males have X0
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Primary exceptional progeny model implications

A:
  • Y chromosome not needed for male fate. *Ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes determines sex*
  • Y chromosome needed for male fertility
Q:

Polyploidy

A:

More than 2 haploid sets of chromosomes are present

  • Prevalent in plants
  • naming based on # of sets of chromosomes found: triploid - 3n chromosomes, tetraploid - 4n, pentaploid - 5n, etc.
Q:

Autopolyploidy

A:

Add. of 1+ sets of chromosomes identical to haploid complement of same species

Q:

Allopolyploidy

A:

Combine chromosome sets from 2 dif. (closely related) species as a result of interspecific matings

*Sterile hybrid undergoes nat. chromosomal doubling = fertile amphidiploid

**can be produced by somatic cell hybridization

Q:

Raphanobrassica "Vegetable of the Proletariat"

A:

Experiment conducted by Gerogii Karpechenko with cabbages (n=9) and radish (n=9)

  • Goal: edible radish root and flavorful cabbage leaves
  • Result: radish leaves and cabbage root = inedible
Q:

Deletion (in chromosome)

A:

Chromosomal deficiency when a chromosome breaks and a fragment is lost

  • Could be terminal (1 break on chromosome terminus) or interstitial (2 breaks)
  • Ex: Cri-du-chat Syndrome
  • Can be seen in polytene chromosomes
Q:

Pseudodominance

A:
  • w+/w+ females have red eyes
  • w-/w+ females have red eyes (w- is recessive)
  • w-/w- females have white eyes
  • w-/Df(X)N females have white eyes (some Notch deletions). w- (recessive mutation) expression = pseudodominance
BIOL241 Exam 2 Study

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