Introduction To Linguistic at Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe | Flashcards & Summaries

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Sociolinguistics:

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Sociolinguistics is the study of interrelationships
of language and social structure, linguistic
variation, and attitudes toward language.

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Pronouns

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1 Personal pronouns - refer to people or things: I/me, you, he/him, she/her, it, we/us, and they/them.
• I saw him yesterday.
2 Possessive pronouns: Possessive pronouns are related to personal pronouns and express ‘ownership’.
• Consider my book yours. These are mine.
3 Relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and that; have a double function: refer to a person or thing +
introduce a dependent clause.
• I know the person whom (DO) you (S) met (P).
4 Interrogative pronouns: whose, who, whom, which and what, which introduce questions.
• Whose book is that? whose is used dependently. Whose is that?
5 Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, and those, which have a ‘pointing’ sense.
• Did you see this/that? Did you read this/that book?
6 Reflexive pronouns: words like myself, himself, and so on and consist of a personal or possessive pronoun followed by self or selves.
• They saw themselves in the mirror. They themselves saw the UFO.
7 Reciprocal pronouns: each other and one another.
• We saw each other quite often.
8 Indefinite pronouns: words like someone and somebody that begin with some, every, no, or any and end in
person, body or thing.

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From social interaction to the usage-based approach

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• Language develops in a social context – use in daily life & group
organisation.

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Phonetics

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= the study of speech sounds

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phonemes

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= the smallest meaning-distinguishing units in a
language
Identifying the phonemes of a language
--> find pairs of words that differ in only one sound and are different in meaning


--> minimal pairs

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Sentence analysis: Basics

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• Level 1: (word level, i.e. constituent parts)
• determiners, noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.
• Level 2: (phrases)
• Noun phrases (NP)
• Verb phrases (VP)
• Prepositional phrases (PP) 

(+ adjectival/adverbial phrase (AdjP/AdvP)
• Level 3: (sentence)
• Subject (S), Object (Odir/Oi),
• Subject/Object Complement (Cs/Co),
• Predicate (NOT verb)
• Adverbial (NOT adverb)

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Phonetics: The air-stream mechanism

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1 Lungs provide the energy source
= Respiration
2 Vocal folds convert the energy into audible sound
= Phonation
3 Articulators transform the sound into intelligible speech
= Articulation

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Wild / isolated children & the CPH

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• Victor – the wild boy from Aveyron, 1800
• Genie, tragically abused, 1970s, Los Angeles
• Isabelle: confinement with a mute mother (until ~ 6 ½ )
• Chelsea: sadly misdiagnosed as a child,
‘rediagnosed’ at 32
• Helen, the extraordinary deaf & blind girl (1880, East coast, USA)

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Semantics

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Semantics is the study of meaning

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Phonetics

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Phonetics is the study of the production and perception of speech sounds. There are three subdisciplines of phonetics:
• Articulatory Phonetics: the production of speech sounds.
• Acoustic Phonetics: the study of the physical production and transmission of speech sounds.
• Auditory Phonetics: the study of the perception of speech sounds.

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Psycholinguistics

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Psycholinguistics is the
study of the psychology of language – how the
mind words when producing, perceiving, using,
storing, acquiring, etc. language.

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Lexical semantics

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 words & their ‘conventional’ meaning
 words & their meaning

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Q:

Sociolinguistics:

A:

Sociolinguistics is the study of interrelationships
of language and social structure, linguistic
variation, and attitudes toward language.

Q:

Pronouns

A:

1 Personal pronouns - refer to people or things: I/me, you, he/him, she/her, it, we/us, and they/them.
• I saw him yesterday.
2 Possessive pronouns: Possessive pronouns are related to personal pronouns and express ‘ownership’.
• Consider my book yours. These are mine.
3 Relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and that; have a double function: refer to a person or thing +
introduce a dependent clause.
• I know the person whom (DO) you (S) met (P).
4 Interrogative pronouns: whose, who, whom, which and what, which introduce questions.
• Whose book is that? whose is used dependently. Whose is that?
5 Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, and those, which have a ‘pointing’ sense.
• Did you see this/that? Did you read this/that book?
6 Reflexive pronouns: words like myself, himself, and so on and consist of a personal or possessive pronoun followed by self or selves.
• They saw themselves in the mirror. They themselves saw the UFO.
7 Reciprocal pronouns: each other and one another.
• We saw each other quite often.
8 Indefinite pronouns: words like someone and somebody that begin with some, every, no, or any and end in
person, body or thing.

Q:

From social interaction to the usage-based approach

A:

• Language develops in a social context – use in daily life & group
organisation.

Q:

Phonetics

A:

= the study of speech sounds

Q:

phonemes

A:

= the smallest meaning-distinguishing units in a
language
Identifying the phonemes of a language
--> find pairs of words that differ in only one sound and are different in meaning


--> minimal pairs

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Q:

Sentence analysis: Basics

A:

• Level 1: (word level, i.e. constituent parts)
• determiners, noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.
• Level 2: (phrases)
• Noun phrases (NP)
• Verb phrases (VP)
• Prepositional phrases (PP) 

(+ adjectival/adverbial phrase (AdjP/AdvP)
• Level 3: (sentence)
• Subject (S), Object (Odir/Oi),
• Subject/Object Complement (Cs/Co),
• Predicate (NOT verb)
• Adverbial (NOT adverb)

Q:

Phonetics: The air-stream mechanism

A:

1 Lungs provide the energy source
= Respiration
2 Vocal folds convert the energy into audible sound
= Phonation
3 Articulators transform the sound into intelligible speech
= Articulation

Q:

Wild / isolated children & the CPH

A:

• Victor – the wild boy from Aveyron, 1800
• Genie, tragically abused, 1970s, Los Angeles
• Isabelle: confinement with a mute mother (until ~ 6 ½ )
• Chelsea: sadly misdiagnosed as a child,
‘rediagnosed’ at 32
• Helen, the extraordinary deaf & blind girl (1880, East coast, USA)

Q:

Semantics

A:

Semantics is the study of meaning

Q:

Phonetics

A:

Phonetics is the study of the production and perception of speech sounds. There are three subdisciplines of phonetics:
• Articulatory Phonetics: the production of speech sounds.
• Acoustic Phonetics: the study of the physical production and transmission of speech sounds.
• Auditory Phonetics: the study of the perception of speech sounds.

Q:

Psycholinguistics

A:

Psycholinguistics is the
study of the psychology of language – how the
mind words when producing, perceiving, using,
storing, acquiring, etc. language.

Q:

Lexical semantics

A:

 words & their ‘conventional’ meaning
 words & their meaning

Introduction to Linguistic

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