Introduction to Linguistic at Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe

Flashcards and summaries for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

phonemes

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Lexical semantics

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

From social interaction to the usage-based approach

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Phonetics: The air-stream mechanism

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Sentence analysis: Basics

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Pronouns

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Psycholinguistics

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Wild / isolated children & the CPH

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Phonetics

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Phonetics

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Sociolinguistics:

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Morphology

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistic at the Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe on StudySmarter:

Introduction to Linguistic

phonemes

= the smallest meaning-distinguishing units in a
language
Identifying the phonemes of a language
--> find pairs of words that differ in only one sound and are different in meaning


--> minimal pairs

Introduction to Linguistic

Lexical semantics

 words & their ‘conventional’ meaning
 words & their meaning

Introduction to Linguistic

From social interaction to the usage-based approach

• Language develops in a social context – use in daily life & group
organisation.

Introduction to Linguistic

Phonetics: The air-stream mechanism

1 Lungs provide the energy source
= Respiration
2 Vocal folds convert the energy into audible sound
= Phonation
3 Articulators transform the sound into intelligible speech
= Articulation

Introduction to Linguistic

Sentence analysis: Basics

• Level 1: (word level, i.e. constituent parts)
• determiners, noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.
• Level 2: (phrases)
• Noun phrases (NP)
• Verb phrases (VP)
• Prepositional phrases (PP) 

(+ adjectival/adverbial phrase (AdjP/AdvP)
• Level 3: (sentence)
• Subject (S), Object (Odir/Oi),
• Subject/Object Complement (Cs/Co),
• Predicate (NOT verb)
• Adverbial (NOT adverb)

Introduction to Linguistic

Pronouns

1 Personal pronouns - refer to people or things: I/me, you, he/him, she/her, it, we/us, and they/them.
• I saw him yesterday.
2 Possessive pronouns: Possessive pronouns are related to personal pronouns and express ‘ownership’.
• Consider my book yours. These are mine.
3 Relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and that; have a double function: refer to a person or thing +
introduce a dependent clause.
• I know the person whom (DO) you (S) met (P).
4 Interrogative pronouns: whose, who, whom, which and what, which introduce questions.
• Whose book is that? whose is used dependently. Whose is that?
5 Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, and those, which have a ‘pointing’ sense.
• Did you see this/that? Did you read this/that book?
6 Reflexive pronouns: words like myself, himself, and so on and consist of a personal or possessive pronoun followed by self or selves.
• They saw themselves in the mirror. They themselves saw the UFO.
7 Reciprocal pronouns: each other and one another.
• We saw each other quite often.
8 Indefinite pronouns: words like someone and somebody that begin with some, every, no, or any and end in
person, body or thing.

Introduction to Linguistic

Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics is the
study of the psychology of language – how the
mind words when producing, perceiving, using,
storing, acquiring, etc. language.

Introduction to Linguistic

Wild / isolated children & the CPH

• Victor – the wild boy from Aveyron, 1800
• Genie, tragically abused, 1970s, Los Angeles
• Isabelle: confinement with a mute mother (until ~ 6 ½ )
• Chelsea: sadly misdiagnosed as a child,
‘rediagnosed’ at 32
• Helen, the extraordinary deaf & blind girl (1880, East coast, USA)

Introduction to Linguistic

Phonetics

= the study of speech sounds

Introduction to Linguistic

Phonetics

Phonetics is the study of the production and perception of speech sounds. There are three subdisciplines of phonetics:
• Articulatory Phonetics: the production of speech sounds.
• Acoustic Phonetics: the study of the physical production and transmission of speech sounds.
• Auditory Phonetics: the study of the perception of speech sounds.

Introduction to Linguistic

Sociolinguistics:

Sociolinguistics is the study of interrelationships
of language and social structure, linguistic
variation, and attitudes toward language.

Introduction to Linguistic

Morphology

Morphology is the study of word formation and
structure.

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