Introduction To Linguistic at Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe | Flashcards & Summaries

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Sociolinguistics:

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Sociolinguistics is the study of interrelationships
of language and social structure, linguistic
variation, and attitudes toward language.

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Phonetics

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Phonetics is the study of the production and perception of speech sounds. There are three subdisciplines of phonetics:
• Articulatory Phonetics: the production of speech sounds.
• Acoustic Phonetics: the study of the physical production and transmission of speech sounds.
• Auditory Phonetics: the study of the perception of speech sounds.

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Sentence analysis: Basics

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• Level 1: (word level, i.e. constituent parts)
• determiners, noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.
• Level 2: (phrases)
• Noun phrases (NP)
• Verb phrases (VP)
• Prepositional phrases (PP) 

(+ adjectival/adverbial phrase (AdjP/AdvP)
• Level 3: (sentence)
• Subject (S), Object (Odir/Oi),
• Subject/Object Complement (Cs/Co),
• Predicate (NOT verb)
• Adverbial (NOT adverb)

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Phonetics: The air-stream mechanism

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1 Lungs provide the energy source
= Respiration
2 Vocal folds convert the energy into audible sound
= Phonation
3 Articulators transform the sound into intelligible speech
= Articulation

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Sounds, words & sentences

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• sounds
= can distinguish meaning
• words
= carry meaning
= stored in mental lexicon as lexemes
= can be grammatically modified for the production of grammatically correct sentences
• sentences
= made up on demand

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Syntax

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= the study of sentence structure
→ internal structure of sentences and the relationship among their components

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Human Language

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Communication
• Intention?
• Belch – scream - cough
Language – how to distinguish from other forms of
communication?
• Voluntary, symbolic, systematic, modalities
Speech
• Vocalisation
• (usually) communication of a message

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Phonetics

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= the study of speech sounds

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Semantics

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Semantics is the study of meaning

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phonemes

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= the smallest meaning-distinguishing units in a
language
Identifying the phonemes of a language
--> find pairs of words that differ in only one sound and are different in meaning


--> minimal pairs

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From social interaction to the usage-based approach

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• Language develops in a social context – use in daily life & group
organisation.

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Lexical Relations

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= meaning relations among words
a) synonymy (synonym)
b) antonymy (antonym)
c) hyponymy (hyponym)
d) homophony (homophone)
e) homonymy (homonym)
f) polysemy
g) metonymy

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Q:

Sociolinguistics:

A:

Sociolinguistics is the study of interrelationships
of language and social structure, linguistic
variation, and attitudes toward language.

Q:

Phonetics

A:

Phonetics is the study of the production and perception of speech sounds. There are three subdisciplines of phonetics:
• Articulatory Phonetics: the production of speech sounds.
• Acoustic Phonetics: the study of the physical production and transmission of speech sounds.
• Auditory Phonetics: the study of the perception of speech sounds.

Q:

Sentence analysis: Basics

A:

• Level 1: (word level, i.e. constituent parts)
• determiners, noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.
• Level 2: (phrases)
• Noun phrases (NP)
• Verb phrases (VP)
• Prepositional phrases (PP) 

(+ adjectival/adverbial phrase (AdjP/AdvP)
• Level 3: (sentence)
• Subject (S), Object (Odir/Oi),
• Subject/Object Complement (Cs/Co),
• Predicate (NOT verb)
• Adverbial (NOT adverb)

Q:

Phonetics: The air-stream mechanism

A:

1 Lungs provide the energy source
= Respiration
2 Vocal folds convert the energy into audible sound
= Phonation
3 Articulators transform the sound into intelligible speech
= Articulation

Q:

Sounds, words & sentences

A:

• sounds
= can distinguish meaning
• words
= carry meaning
= stored in mental lexicon as lexemes
= can be grammatically modified for the production of grammatically correct sentences
• sentences
= made up on demand

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Q:

Syntax

A:

= the study of sentence structure
→ internal structure of sentences and the relationship among their components

Q:

Human Language

A:

Communication
• Intention?
• Belch – scream - cough
Language – how to distinguish from other forms of
communication?
• Voluntary, symbolic, systematic, modalities
Speech
• Vocalisation
• (usually) communication of a message

Q:

Phonetics

A:

= the study of speech sounds

Q:

Semantics

A:

Semantics is the study of meaning

Q:

phonemes

A:

= the smallest meaning-distinguishing units in a
language
Identifying the phonemes of a language
--> find pairs of words that differ in only one sound and are different in meaning


--> minimal pairs

Q:

From social interaction to the usage-based approach

A:

• Language develops in a social context – use in daily life & group
organisation.

Q:

Lexical Relations

A:

= meaning relations among words
a) synonymy (synonym)
b) antonymy (antonym)
c) hyponymy (hyponym)
d) homophony (homophone)
e) homonymy (homonym)
f) polysemy
g) metonymy

Introduction to Linguistic

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