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Lernmaterialien für cardio an der Monash University

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what is bundle branch block? what is the significant feature of this condition? 

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- abnormal conduction through either the right or left bundle branches 

- delay in depolarisation of part of the ventricular muscle - widening of the QRS complex! 


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left bundle branch block vs right bundle branch block? 

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left bundle branch block: 

  • M-shaped R waves in V5 and V6 (left chest leads) 
  • W-shaped S waves in V1 (right chest lead) 

it is gonna be a big L if i am married with suga [MR = M-shaped R wave; WS = W-shaped S wave - suga is 1 person, thus V1]


right bundle branch block: 

  • M-shaped R waves in V1 and V2 [right chest leads] 
  • W-shaped S waves in V6 [left chest lead] 


​it is the right decision to marry suga and the 6 other members of BTS [marry = m-shaped R wave in v1 and v2; with suga = w-shaped S wave in V6 - 6 other members of BTS]

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what will be included under acute coronary syndrome? 

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unstable angina

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​AV nodal branch 

- what is the proportion supplied by the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery? 

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80% - right coronary artery 

20% - left coronary artery

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what does vagus nerve contain? what fibres

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  • will contain the preganglionic parasympathetic fibres [that will then travel to the heart organ and then synapse with the postganglionic PSNS fibres directly in atrial walls] 
  • will also contain visceral afferent sensory fibres
    • can detect changes in blood pressure and blood chemistry and return to the medulla, hence no referred pain!
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what does the cardiac nerves of the sympathetic trunk contain? 

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- postganglionic sympathetic fibres (T1-T5) 

- visceral afferent sensory fibres that run along with the cardiac nerves

  • will have referred pain!! 
  • - pain referred to t1-t4 dermatomes
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long PR interval will be more than... 

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0.20seconds 

  • seen as more than 5 small squares / 1 large square


​due to AV block 

  • need to determine if its 1st, 2nd or 3rd degree AV blocks
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VSD usually occurs in the __________ part of the interventricular septum? 

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MEMBRANOUS PART 

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​How is blood shunted to the left side during fetal development? state 2 mechanisms! 

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during fetal development, pressure in the right side of the heart will be higher than the left side 

  • ductus arteriosus - shunt that connects pulmonary trunk with aorta, allowing blood to flow out of the right ventricle and enter aorta directly 
  • foramen ovale: between right atrium and left atrium; blood shunted from RA to LA due to higher pressure in RA 

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is aortic and pulmonary stenosis cyanotic? 

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nope not cyanotic! 

both will basically cause hypertrophy to the respective ventricles as you increase workload!
- pulmonary stenosis - RV hypertrophy 

  • will be a systolic murmur

​- aortic stenosis - LV hypertrophy

  • will be a systolic murmur  
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

right dominant heart vs left dominant heart? 

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​right dominant heart: where the posterior descending artery is branched from the right coronary artery; perfusion of the left ventricle is split between the RCA and LCA 


left dominant heart: where the posterior descending artery is branched from the left coronary artery instead! --> perfusion of the left ventricle is done by the LCA!! 

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how do GTN work? 

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Organic nitrates relax vascular smooth muscle 

  • Nitrates are prodrugs, which are converted inside cells to NO (Nitric Oxide) 
  • Nitrates are converted to NO → stimulate guanylate cyclase → increase in [cGMP]intracellular → relaxation of vascular smooth muscles 
  • GTN will basically donate NO from its structure to assist in relaxation of vascular smooth muscle 
  • Results in vasodilation!
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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen cardio Kurs an der Monash University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

what is bundle branch block? what is the significant feature of this condition? 

A:

- abnormal conduction through either the right or left bundle branches 

- delay in depolarisation of part of the ventricular muscle - widening of the QRS complex! 


Q:

left bundle branch block vs right bundle branch block? 

A:

left bundle branch block: 

  • M-shaped R waves in V5 and V6 (left chest leads) 
  • W-shaped S waves in V1 (right chest lead) 

it is gonna be a big L if i am married with suga [MR = M-shaped R wave; WS = W-shaped S wave - suga is 1 person, thus V1]


right bundle branch block: 

  • M-shaped R waves in V1 and V2 [right chest leads] 
  • W-shaped S waves in V6 [left chest lead] 


​it is the right decision to marry suga and the 6 other members of BTS [marry = m-shaped R wave in v1 and v2; with suga = w-shaped S wave in V6 - 6 other members of BTS]

Q:

what will be included under acute coronary syndrome? 

A:

unstable angina

Q:

​AV nodal branch 

- what is the proportion supplied by the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery? 

A:

80% - right coronary artery 

20% - left coronary artery

Q:

what does vagus nerve contain? what fibres

A:
  • will contain the preganglionic parasympathetic fibres [that will then travel to the heart organ and then synapse with the postganglionic PSNS fibres directly in atrial walls] 
  • will also contain visceral afferent sensory fibres
    • can detect changes in blood pressure and blood chemistry and return to the medulla, hence no referred pain!
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

what does the cardiac nerves of the sympathetic trunk contain? 

A:

- postganglionic sympathetic fibres (T1-T5) 

- visceral afferent sensory fibres that run along with the cardiac nerves

  • will have referred pain!! 
  • - pain referred to t1-t4 dermatomes
Q:

long PR interval will be more than... 

A:

0.20seconds 

  • seen as more than 5 small squares / 1 large square


​due to AV block 

  • need to determine if its 1st, 2nd or 3rd degree AV blocks
Q:

VSD usually occurs in the __________ part of the interventricular septum? 

A:

MEMBRANOUS PART 

Q:

​How is blood shunted to the left side during fetal development? state 2 mechanisms! 

A:

during fetal development, pressure in the right side of the heart will be higher than the left side 

  • ductus arteriosus - shunt that connects pulmonary trunk with aorta, allowing blood to flow out of the right ventricle and enter aorta directly 
  • foramen ovale: between right atrium and left atrium; blood shunted from RA to LA due to higher pressure in RA 

Q:

is aortic and pulmonary stenosis cyanotic? 

A:

nope not cyanotic! 

both will basically cause hypertrophy to the respective ventricles as you increase workload!
- pulmonary stenosis - RV hypertrophy 

  • will be a systolic murmur

​- aortic stenosis - LV hypertrophy

  • will be a systolic murmur  
Q:

right dominant heart vs left dominant heart? 

A:

​right dominant heart: where the posterior descending artery is branched from the right coronary artery; perfusion of the left ventricle is split between the RCA and LCA 


left dominant heart: where the posterior descending artery is branched from the left coronary artery instead! --> perfusion of the left ventricle is done by the LCA!! 

Q:

how do GTN work? 

A:

Organic nitrates relax vascular smooth muscle 

  • Nitrates are prodrugs, which are converted inside cells to NO (Nitric Oxide) 
  • Nitrates are converted to NO → stimulate guanylate cyclase → increase in [cGMP]intracellular → relaxation of vascular smooth muscles 
  • GTN will basically donate NO from its structure to assist in relaxation of vascular smooth muscle 
  • Results in vasodilation!
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