Methods & Techniques of research at Maastricht University

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Science

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Protoscience

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Pseudoscience
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Method of authority

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Rational method

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The scientific method

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Hypothesis
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Empirical

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Rational

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Testable

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Parsimonious
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Exemplary flashcards for Methods & Techniques of research at the Maastricht University on StudySmarter:

Methods & Techniques of research

Science
A set of methods used to collect information about a particular area of interest and build a reliable base of knowledge about it
Knowledge is acquired through research and the development of theories

Methods & Techniques of research

Protoscience
Science at the edges of current scientific understanding.
often, scientific methods are used.
Can develop into true science or descend into pseudoscience

Methods & Techniques of research

Pseudoscience
Set of ideas based on theories put forth as scientific when they are not.

Characteristics:
  • Explaining away falsifications
  • No mechanisms of self-correction
  • Shifting the burden of proof to sceptics
  • Relying on anecdotal, no scientific evidence
  • Avoiding peer-review
  • Failing to build an existing base of knowledge
  • Using impressive sounding jargon
  • Failing to specify conditions under which the claim would not hold true

Methods & Techniques of research

Method of authority
Acquiring knowledge through expert sources

Methods & Techniques of research

Rational method
Drawing valid, logically deduced conclusions through pure reason from self-evident truths 

Methods & Techniques of research

The scientific method
4 steps:
  • Observing a phenomenon
  • Formulating tentative explanations/hypothesis
  • Systematic observation and experimentation
  • Refining and retesting explanations

Methods & Techniques of research

Hypothesis
A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.

Characteristics:
  • educated guesses, limited scope, relatively simple
  • Connected to prior research
  • Testable
  • Falsifiable
  • Positive
  • Parsimonious

Methods & Techniques of research

Empirical
Based on evidence of the senses, systematic observation carried out under carefully controlled conditions

Methods & Techniques of research

Rational
Follows the rules of logic and is consistent with known factors

Methods & Techniques of research

Testable
Ability to imagine outcomes of the explanation that would disprove the explanation

Methods & Techniques of research

Parsimonious
Fewest number of assumptions

Methods & Techniques of research

General
Broad explanations

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