Body And Behavior at Maastricht University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Body and Behavior an der Maastricht University

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Different parts of the Telencephalon

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- Gyri, Fissures, Sulci
- Cerebral Cortex
- Four Lobes
- Limbic System
- Basal ganglia
- Ventricle system
- Cerebral commisures (biggest: Corpus callosum)
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Cerebral Cortex
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90% Neocortex

10% Hippocampus (3 layers, major role in some kinds of spatial memory)

- small, unmyelinated neurons-> grey matter (neurons are organized in 6 layers)

- large myelinated axons-> white matter


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Four Lobes
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- from anterior to posterior-> functions gets more basic (complex in the front)

- from superior/ dorsal(cortex) to inferior/ ventral(subcortical regions)-> functions gets more basic (complex on the top)

Frontal lobe:  
  • more complicated psychological processes 
  • ability to organize, personality, planning response sequences, evaluating, memory

Parietal lobe

  • the ability to read, write, understand spatial relationships, sensations from the body
  • linking sensory information to action

Temporal lobe

  • speech and comprehension, hearing and language, memory

Occipital lobe

  • processing visual information

Insula:  

  • brain is folded over
  • consciosness, self- awareness, social emotions


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What is the circadian rhythm and how is it influenced?

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- cycle which is approx. 24 hours long

- influenced by light and such things like a clock

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What is Sleep apnea?

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- inability to sleep and breathe at the same time

- period of sleep apnea level of carbon dioxide in blood stimulates chemoreceptors,

person wakes up, gasping for air, falls asleep, and the whole cycle begins again

- corrected surgically or device that attaches to the sleeper’s face

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Limbic system
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- a system of many structures

- regulation of motivated behaviors

- Circle the thalamus

- Amygdala

  • emotions espacially fear
  •  located next to the lateral ventricle in the temporal lobe

- Hippocampus

  • posterior to amygdala
  • major role in some kinds of spatial memory

- Fornix

  • bundle of tracts, links hippocampus with the hypothalamus and other structures
  • terminates in septum and the mammillary bodies

- Cingulate cortex

  • dorsal to corpus callosum

- Septum

- Mammillary bodies

  • often considered as a part of the hypothalamus
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Basal ganglia

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- role in the performance of voluntary motor responses and decision making

- Amygdala

- Striatum

  • long tail-like caudate connected by fibers, the putamen
  • Each caudate forms an almost complete circle; in its center, connected to it by a series of fiber bridges, is the putamen

- Globus pallidus

  • medial to the putamen between the putamen and the thalamus

- Substantia nigra (produces dopamine)

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Steps of AP arrives at the Axon terminal
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1. AP travels down the Axon
2. voltage gated Ca+ channels open and Ca+ flows in (propelled by electrostatic pressure)
3. Ca+ causes vesicles to fill with NT and fuse with the presynaptic membrane to release the NT into the synaptic cleft
4. NT go through the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors, ion channels open at the postsynaptic membrane
5. This ion flow creates a local EPSP or IPSP in the postsynaptic neuron
6. after NT is ''done'' it gets degraded by enzyms (fractionized) or Reuptake into the presynaptic cell again
7. Synaptic transmitter may also activate presynaptic autoreceptors, regulating future transmitter release
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Pons
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.......
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Diencephalon
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- Thalamus

- Hypothalamus

- Epithalamus

- Subthalamus

- Optic chiasm

- Pituitary gland

- Retina

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Metencephalon
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- many ascending and descending tracts and part of the Reticular formation

- Pons

  • brain stem’s ventral surface
  •  connecting midbrain to medulla

- Cerebellum

  • dorsal surface of brain stem

  • important sensorimotor structure

  • Damage: liminates the ability to precisely control one’s movements, also produces a variety of cognitive deficits

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Cell body
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- cell nucleus--> contains DNA
- mitochondria--> provides energy
- Ribosoms--> RNA translates to amino acids
- Endoplasmatic reticulum

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  • 18040 Karteikarten
  • 328 Studierende
  • 1 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Body and Behavior Kurs an der Maastricht University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Different parts of the Telencephalon

A:
- Gyri, Fissures, Sulci
- Cerebral Cortex
- Four Lobes
- Limbic System
- Basal ganglia
- Ventricle system
- Cerebral commisures (biggest: Corpus callosum)
Q:
Cerebral Cortex
A:

90% Neocortex

10% Hippocampus (3 layers, major role in some kinds of spatial memory)

- small, unmyelinated neurons-> grey matter (neurons are organized in 6 layers)

- large myelinated axons-> white matter


Q:
Four Lobes
A:
- from anterior to posterior-> functions gets more basic (complex in the front)

- from superior/ dorsal(cortex) to inferior/ ventral(subcortical regions)-> functions gets more basic (complex on the top)

Frontal lobe:  
  • more complicated psychological processes 
  • ability to organize, personality, planning response sequences, evaluating, memory

Parietal lobe

  • the ability to read, write, understand spatial relationships, sensations from the body
  • linking sensory information to action

Temporal lobe

  • speech and comprehension, hearing and language, memory

Occipital lobe

  • processing visual information

Insula:  

  • brain is folded over
  • consciosness, self- awareness, social emotions


Q:

What is the circadian rhythm and how is it influenced?

A:

- cycle which is approx. 24 hours long

- influenced by light and such things like a clock

Q:

What is Sleep apnea?

A:

- inability to sleep and breathe at the same time

- period of sleep apnea level of carbon dioxide in blood stimulates chemoreceptors,

person wakes up, gasping for air, falls asleep, and the whole cycle begins again

- corrected surgically or device that attaches to the sleeper’s face

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Limbic system
A:

- a system of many structures

- regulation of motivated behaviors

- Circle the thalamus

- Amygdala

  • emotions espacially fear
  •  located next to the lateral ventricle in the temporal lobe

- Hippocampus

  • posterior to amygdala
  • major role in some kinds of spatial memory

- Fornix

  • bundle of tracts, links hippocampus with the hypothalamus and other structures
  • terminates in septum and the mammillary bodies

- Cingulate cortex

  • dorsal to corpus callosum

- Septum

- Mammillary bodies

  • often considered as a part of the hypothalamus
Q:

Basal ganglia

A:

- role in the performance of voluntary motor responses and decision making

- Amygdala

- Striatum

  • long tail-like caudate connected by fibers, the putamen
  • Each caudate forms an almost complete circle; in its center, connected to it by a series of fiber bridges, is the putamen

- Globus pallidus

  • medial to the putamen between the putamen and the thalamus

- Substantia nigra (produces dopamine)

Q:
Steps of AP arrives at the Axon terminal
A:
1. AP travels down the Axon
2. voltage gated Ca+ channels open and Ca+ flows in (propelled by electrostatic pressure)
3. Ca+ causes vesicles to fill with NT and fuse with the presynaptic membrane to release the NT into the synaptic cleft
4. NT go through the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors, ion channels open at the postsynaptic membrane
5. This ion flow creates a local EPSP or IPSP in the postsynaptic neuron
6. after NT is ''done'' it gets degraded by enzyms (fractionized) or Reuptake into the presynaptic cell again
7. Synaptic transmitter may also activate presynaptic autoreceptors, regulating future transmitter release
Q:
Pons
A:
.......
Q:
Diencephalon
A:

- Thalamus

- Hypothalamus

- Epithalamus

- Subthalamus

- Optic chiasm

- Pituitary gland

- Retina

Q:
Metencephalon
A:

- many ascending and descending tracts and part of the Reticular formation

- Pons

  • brain stem’s ventral surface
  •  connecting midbrain to medulla

- Cerebellum

  • dorsal surface of brain stem

  • important sensorimotor structure

  • Damage: liminates the ability to precisely control one’s movements, also produces a variety of cognitive deficits

Q:
Cell body
A:
- cell nucleus--> contains DNA
- mitochondria--> provides energy
- Ribosoms--> RNA translates to amino acids
- Endoplasmatic reticulum

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