TEFL at LMU München | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für TEFL an der LMU München

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Lexical Chunks
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prefabricated strings of words that are frequently used in spoken and written communication and stored as one single lexical unit in our memory

[collocations, compounds, prepositional phrases, phrasal verbs, binominals, trinominals, similes, idioms, proverbs]
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Approaches of Teaching Grammar
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INDUCTIVE
  • the teacher presents language examples first and learners are supposed to discover the grammar rules for the examples
  • example -> rule (‘Lerner müssen Regel finden’)

DEDUCTIVE
  • the teacher presents grammar rule first and learners form examples of the new grammar rule to practice its application
  • rule -> example (‘Lehrer erklärt Regel’)
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Purposes of Speaking
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INTERACTIONAL
  • direct social interaction with focus on the relationship

TRANSACTIONAL
  • focus on information
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Coherence vs Cohesion
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COHERENCE
= unity of a text in its meaning

COHESION
= unity of a text through linguistic devices to join the parts of the text
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Motherese vs Teacherese
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MOTHERESE
= simplified and adjusted language directed at children by caretakers to secure understanding

TEACHERESE
= teachers adjust their language to support learners and meet their language learning levels and needs
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Stereotypes and Prejudices
[An important force field of intercultural learning]

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STEREOTYPES
  • images of the mind: “overgeneralizations and oversimplifications that are rigid, resistant to change, undependable in their actual content, produced without logical reasoning“
  • possibly necessary to pre-structure social and intercultural encounters, but also prone to leading to misunderstandings and communication breakdown

PREJUDICES
  • extreme stereotype marked by negativism and denial of equality
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Grammar (definition)
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"Grammar can ... be conceptualised 'as patterns of language through which meaning is created and shared'."

Grammar is a set of rules which describe how words are combined to form acceptable units of meaning.
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Classification of Oral Production (CEFR)
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  • Oral Production

  • Spoken Interaction

  • Oral Mediation
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Classification of Writing - CEFR
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  • Written Interaction
[mails, letters of complaint]

  • Written Production
[essays, stories]

  • Written Mediation
[for intercultural encounters]
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Classification of Writing - Approaches
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PROCESS-BASED approaches
  • focus on the process of writing mainly form a cognitive point of view
  • sub-processes: setting goals > generating ideas > organising information > selecting appropriate language > making a draft > reading and reviewing > revisiting and editing

GENRE-/TEXT-BASED approaches
  • focus on the product of writing and the communicative intentions by examining the  structure, style and audience of specific text-types, usually a step-by-step procedure
  • Identifying the students’ writing need > Building awareness of discourse organisation > Developing the students’ crafting skills > Enabling students to apply criteria on an effective text

CREATIVE WRITING
  • focus on aesthetic value, improvisation/feel for language/imagination
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Conceptualising reading, listening and viewing:
3 types of processing
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TOP-DOWN processing
  • hypothesis building, inference, applying world/genre knowledge, contextual clues
  • assimilating the text into prior knowledge of  context and content
  • applying generic cognitive schemata and (social) scripts to the text

BOTTOM-UP processing
  • the step-by-step decoding of letters/sounds, words,
    sentences and finally whole texts -> moving towards larger units of meaning
  • the parallel processing of linguistic knowledge

INTERACTIVE/INTEGRATIVE processing
(simultaneously)
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Mental Lexicon (ML)
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[VL: store of words in a person’s mind]


human word store: the part of our long-term memory where words are systematically linked according to their conceptual, semantic and phonological similarity

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  • 7989 Studierende
  • 555 Lernmaterialien

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Q:
Lexical Chunks
A:
prefabricated strings of words that are frequently used in spoken and written communication and stored as one single lexical unit in our memory

[collocations, compounds, prepositional phrases, phrasal verbs, binominals, trinominals, similes, idioms, proverbs]
Q:
Approaches of Teaching Grammar
A:
INDUCTIVE
  • the teacher presents language examples first and learners are supposed to discover the grammar rules for the examples
  • example -> rule (‘Lerner müssen Regel finden’)

DEDUCTIVE
  • the teacher presents grammar rule first and learners form examples of the new grammar rule to practice its application
  • rule -> example (‘Lehrer erklärt Regel’)
Q:
Purposes of Speaking
A:
INTERACTIONAL
  • direct social interaction with focus on the relationship

TRANSACTIONAL
  • focus on information
Q:
Coherence vs Cohesion
A:
COHERENCE
= unity of a text in its meaning

COHESION
= unity of a text through linguistic devices to join the parts of the text
Q:
Motherese vs Teacherese
A:
MOTHERESE
= simplified and adjusted language directed at children by caretakers to secure understanding

TEACHERESE
= teachers adjust their language to support learners and meet their language learning levels and needs
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Stereotypes and Prejudices
[An important force field of intercultural learning]

A:
STEREOTYPES
  • images of the mind: “overgeneralizations and oversimplifications that are rigid, resistant to change, undependable in their actual content, produced without logical reasoning“
  • possibly necessary to pre-structure social and intercultural encounters, but also prone to leading to misunderstandings and communication breakdown

PREJUDICES
  • extreme stereotype marked by negativism and denial of equality
Q:
Grammar (definition)
A:
"Grammar can ... be conceptualised 'as patterns of language through which meaning is created and shared'."

Grammar is a set of rules which describe how words are combined to form acceptable units of meaning.
Q:
Classification of Oral Production (CEFR)
A:

  • Oral Production

  • Spoken Interaction

  • Oral Mediation
Q:
Classification of Writing - CEFR
A:

  • Written Interaction
[mails, letters of complaint]

  • Written Production
[essays, stories]

  • Written Mediation
[for intercultural encounters]
Q:
Classification of Writing - Approaches
A:
PROCESS-BASED approaches
  • focus on the process of writing mainly form a cognitive point of view
  • sub-processes: setting goals > generating ideas > organising information > selecting appropriate language > making a draft > reading and reviewing > revisiting and editing

GENRE-/TEXT-BASED approaches
  • focus on the product of writing and the communicative intentions by examining the  structure, style and audience of specific text-types, usually a step-by-step procedure
  • Identifying the students’ writing need > Building awareness of discourse organisation > Developing the students’ crafting skills > Enabling students to apply criteria on an effective text

CREATIVE WRITING
  • focus on aesthetic value, improvisation/feel for language/imagination
Q:
Conceptualising reading, listening and viewing:
3 types of processing
A:
TOP-DOWN processing
  • hypothesis building, inference, applying world/genre knowledge, contextual clues
  • assimilating the text into prior knowledge of  context and content
  • applying generic cognitive schemata and (social) scripts to the text

BOTTOM-UP processing
  • the step-by-step decoding of letters/sounds, words,
    sentences and finally whole texts -> moving towards larger units of meaning
  • the parallel processing of linguistic knowledge

INTERACTIVE/INTEGRATIVE processing
(simultaneously)
Q:
Mental Lexicon (ML)
A:

[VL: store of words in a person’s mind]


human word store: the part of our long-term memory where words are systematically linked according to their conceptual, semantic and phonological similarity

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