VL 9 - Memory (non- & Declarative, Autobiographical), Eyewitness Testimony at Leuphana Universität | Flashcards & Summaries

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What is procedural memory

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A form of long-term memory/implicit memory concerned with knowing how. (Motor skills)

It includes the knowledge required to perform skilled actions.


An example would be knowing how to walk, talk or ride a bike. 
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Which are strengths and limitations of Barsalou's situated simulation theory

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Strengths:

- The approach poses an improvement to the theoretical approach 

- Concept processing is generally flexible as it is influenced by the individual's goals and context 

Limitations:

- Concept knowledge is not limited to perceptual and motor features (e.g. "Tomatoes are native to South and Central America")

- Patients with damage to sensorimotor systems have no deficit in conceptual processing 

- Similarities can be recognized between concepts even if they don't share motor or perceptual features (e.g. we would categories "watermelon" and "blackberry" as both fruits, even though they differ visually and in the way we eat them using different motor actions)

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"Episodic and semantic memory are separate and independent from one another."


Evaluate this statement by using one argument supporting the thesis and one that speaks against it. 

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Research with brain-damaged patients (double dissociations) has shown that impairments for only one of the two long-term memory components can be possible - e.g. amnesia & semantic dementia 

- 

There also exists research supporting the notion, that episodic and semantic memory are interdependent at learning and during retrieval, making it hard to disentangle their respective contributions. 

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What is priming

What repetition priming

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Priming

= Facilitating the processing and response to a target stimulus by presenting a stimulus that is related to it shortly beforehand

Repetition priming

= The finding that processing of  a stimulus os facilitated if it has been processed previously

Both are part of non-declarative/implicit memory

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What is the process of semanticisation

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The phenomenon of episodic memories changing into semantic memories over time. 

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Which are techniques to study episodic memory?

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Recall memory tests

Free recall, serial recall and cued recall tests

Recognition memory tests 

Yes/no recognition and forced-choice recognition tests 

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Explain the key aspects of the Binding-of-item-and-context-model by Diana et al., 2007. 

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Familiarity (know) and recollection (remember) are two different processes involved in recognition memory. 

- Familiarity is often fast and "automatic", it is the sense of knowing something without being able to remember the context

- Recollection is slower and more attention-demanding, it is remembering contextual details about a memory 

1) The peripheral cortex receives information about specific items (what; information needed for familiarity judgments) 

2) The parahippocampal cortex receives information about context (where; information useful for recollection judgments) 

3) The hippocampus receives what and where information and binds them to form item-context associations permitting recollection 


(This all concerns episodic memory)

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Which of the following statements are true about episodic memory

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Episodic memory is error prone because it is constructive rather than productive.

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What are concepts

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Concepts are mental representations of categories of objects, people or items (e.g. names of capital cities, hockey-rules). These are important, as most of the information in the semantic memory consists of concepts. 

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What do mental representations of concepts look like according to the traditional view?


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The traditional view

- Concepts are abstract (= detached from perception (sensory input)  and action (motor processes))

- Concept representations are stable and unchanging on different occasions 

- Concept representations are like "encyclopedia descriptions" and don't differ between individuals


Criticism: 

The approach assumes cognition is "sandwiched" between action and perception and can be studied without considering the other two factors. 

BUT: How could these concept representations then be used to perceive the world or decide how to behave in a given situation?  

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Name different recognition tests to assess episodic memory

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Forced-choice recognition

Example:

- Memorize the words "CAT BALLET"

- "Which word did you recall before: BALLET or MONK?"

Yes/No recognition 

Example:

- "Did you study the word: BALLET?"

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What are criticisms regarding the Hub-and-spoke model?

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- The model focuses on single concepts rather than the relations between concepts 

- It remains unclear how information from hub and spokes is integrated 

- Only limited understanding of how labour is divided between hub and spokes during concept processing 

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Q:

What is procedural memory

A:

A form of long-term memory/implicit memory concerned with knowing how. (Motor skills)

It includes the knowledge required to perform skilled actions.


An example would be knowing how to walk, talk or ride a bike. 
Q:

Which are strengths and limitations of Barsalou's situated simulation theory

A:

Strengths:

- The approach poses an improvement to the theoretical approach 

- Concept processing is generally flexible as it is influenced by the individual's goals and context 

Limitations:

- Concept knowledge is not limited to perceptual and motor features (e.g. "Tomatoes are native to South and Central America")

- Patients with damage to sensorimotor systems have no deficit in conceptual processing 

- Similarities can be recognized between concepts even if they don't share motor or perceptual features (e.g. we would categories "watermelon" and "blackberry" as both fruits, even though they differ visually and in the way we eat them using different motor actions)

Q:

"Episodic and semantic memory are separate and independent from one another."


Evaluate this statement by using one argument supporting the thesis and one that speaks against it. 

A:

Research with brain-damaged patients (double dissociations) has shown that impairments for only one of the two long-term memory components can be possible - e.g. amnesia & semantic dementia 

- 

There also exists research supporting the notion, that episodic and semantic memory are interdependent at learning and during retrieval, making it hard to disentangle their respective contributions. 

Q:

What is priming

What repetition priming

A:

Priming

= Facilitating the processing and response to a target stimulus by presenting a stimulus that is related to it shortly beforehand

Repetition priming

= The finding that processing of  a stimulus os facilitated if it has been processed previously

Both are part of non-declarative/implicit memory

Q:

What is the process of semanticisation

A:

The phenomenon of episodic memories changing into semantic memories over time. 

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Which are techniques to study episodic memory?

A:

Recall memory tests

Free recall, serial recall and cued recall tests

Recognition memory tests 

Yes/no recognition and forced-choice recognition tests 

Q:

Explain the key aspects of the Binding-of-item-and-context-model by Diana et al., 2007. 

A:

Familiarity (know) and recollection (remember) are two different processes involved in recognition memory. 

- Familiarity is often fast and "automatic", it is the sense of knowing something without being able to remember the context

- Recollection is slower and more attention-demanding, it is remembering contextual details about a memory 

1) The peripheral cortex receives information about specific items (what; information needed for familiarity judgments) 

2) The parahippocampal cortex receives information about context (where; information useful for recollection judgments) 

3) The hippocampus receives what and where information and binds them to form item-context associations permitting recollection 


(This all concerns episodic memory)

Q:

Which of the following statements are true about episodic memory

A:

Episodic memory is error prone because it is constructive rather than productive.

Q:

What are concepts

A:

Concepts are mental representations of categories of objects, people or items (e.g. names of capital cities, hockey-rules). These are important, as most of the information in the semantic memory consists of concepts. 

Q:

What do mental representations of concepts look like according to the traditional view?


A:

The traditional view

- Concepts are abstract (= detached from perception (sensory input)  and action (motor processes))

- Concept representations are stable and unchanging on different occasions 

- Concept representations are like "encyclopedia descriptions" and don't differ between individuals


Criticism: 

The approach assumes cognition is "sandwiched" between action and perception and can be studied without considering the other two factors. 

BUT: How could these concept representations then be used to perceive the world or decide how to behave in a given situation?  

Q:

Name different recognition tests to assess episodic memory

A:

Forced-choice recognition

Example:

- Memorize the words "CAT BALLET"

- "Which word did you recall before: BALLET or MONK?"

Yes/No recognition 

Example:

- "Did you study the word: BALLET?"

Q:

What are criticisms regarding the Hub-and-spoke model?

A:

- The model focuses on single concepts rather than the relations between concepts 

- It remains unclear how information from hub and spokes is integrated 

- Only limited understanding of how labour is divided between hub and spokes during concept processing 

VL 9 - Memory (non- & declarative, autobiographical), eyewitness testimony

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