Introduction To Psychlogy at Leiden University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Introduction to Psychlogy an der Leiden University

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TMS

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- transcranial magnetic stimlutaion

procedure for localizing functions in the human brain

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spinal nerves

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project from the spinal cord (31 pairs)

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What is a posteriori knowledge?
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Knowledge which one gains from experience in the environment 
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Lessons from Clever Hans
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  • The horse was famous for his abilities to answer questions
  • Oskar Pfungst theorized and proved that Hans could only answer questions through responding to visual cues (observers who knew the answer would inadvertly move their head which signalised Hans that he had reach the answer
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What is the concept of association by contiguity/mental chemistry (John Stuart Mill)?
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  • If a person experiences two environmental events (stimuli/sensation) at the same time or right after another those two events will become associated in the mind 
  • thought of one event will elicit thought of the other -> apple: sweet and red)
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Describe Charles Darwins theory of natural selection
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  • Well adapted individuals (to local environments) are more likely to survive and reproduce
  • function: the ways in which an organisms behavior helps to survive and reproduce
  • focus on the functions of behavior (offered scientific foundations)
  • Fun fact: humans emotional expressions are inherited and may have evolved because the ability to communicate improves chances of survival
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On which findings are Hobbes‘ ideas based on?
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  • reflexes: an understanding of the nervous system (connection between senses, organs, and muscles)
  • localization: localization of functions in the brain -> parts of the brain serve specific functions of mental experience and behavior (material basis for mentalprocesses)
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What are biological causal explanations?
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  • neural (brain as cause)
  • physiological (internal chemical functions ->hormones as cause)
  • genetic (genes as cause)
  • evolutionary (natural selection as cause)
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What is a priori knowledge?
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  • knowledge, which is build into the human brain (doesn’t have to be learned) -> concepts of time and space
  • a priori knowledge is needed to acquire a posteriori knowledge
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Describe John Lockes‘ position of empiricism
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  • Humans knowledge and thought derive from sensory experiences -> we are able to learn
  • tabula rasa: no innate knowledge
  • concept of association by contiguity
  • environmental experiences have an impact on peoples‘s thoughts, feeling, and behavior
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What is the level of analysis?
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  • Refers to the level or type of causal process that is studies
  • there are two types: biological causal explanations and environment, knowledge and development explanation
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Describe Immanuel Kants‘ position of nativism
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  • We have learning abilities that are innate 
  • a priori knowledge
  • a posteriori knowledge
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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Introduction to Psychlogy Kurs an der Leiden University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

TMS

A:

- transcranial magnetic stimlutaion

procedure for localizing functions in the human brain

Q:

spinal nerves

A:

project from the spinal cord (31 pairs)

Q:
What is a posteriori knowledge?
A:
Knowledge which one gains from experience in the environment 
Q:
Lessons from Clever Hans
A:
  • The horse was famous for his abilities to answer questions
  • Oskar Pfungst theorized and proved that Hans could only answer questions through responding to visual cues (observers who knew the answer would inadvertly move their head which signalised Hans that he had reach the answer
Q:
What is the concept of association by contiguity/mental chemistry (John Stuart Mill)?
A:
  • If a person experiences two environmental events (stimuli/sensation) at the same time or right after another those two events will become associated in the mind 
  • thought of one event will elicit thought of the other -> apple: sweet and red)
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Describe Charles Darwins theory of natural selection
A:
  • Well adapted individuals (to local environments) are more likely to survive and reproduce
  • function: the ways in which an organisms behavior helps to survive and reproduce
  • focus on the functions of behavior (offered scientific foundations)
  • Fun fact: humans emotional expressions are inherited and may have evolved because the ability to communicate improves chances of survival
Q:
On which findings are Hobbes‘ ideas based on?
A:
  • reflexes: an understanding of the nervous system (connection between senses, organs, and muscles)
  • localization: localization of functions in the brain -> parts of the brain serve specific functions of mental experience and behavior (material basis for mentalprocesses)
Q:
What are biological causal explanations?
A:
  • neural (brain as cause)
  • physiological (internal chemical functions ->hormones as cause)
  • genetic (genes as cause)
  • evolutionary (natural selection as cause)
Q:
What is a priori knowledge?
A:
  • knowledge, which is build into the human brain (doesn’t have to be learned) -> concepts of time and space
  • a priori knowledge is needed to acquire a posteriori knowledge
Q:
Describe John Lockes‘ position of empiricism
A:
  • Humans knowledge and thought derive from sensory experiences -> we are able to learn
  • tabula rasa: no innate knowledge
  • concept of association by contiguity
  • environmental experiences have an impact on peoples‘s thoughts, feeling, and behavior
Q:
What is the level of analysis?
A:
  • Refers to the level or type of causal process that is studies
  • there are two types: biological causal explanations and environment, knowledge and development explanation
Q:
Describe Immanuel Kants‘ position of nativism
A:
  • We have learning abilities that are innate 
  • a priori knowledge
  • a posteriori knowledge
Introduction to Psychlogy

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