 Inferential Statistics at Leiden University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Alternative (research) hypothesis

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Statement of expectation/prediction that will be tested

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X² distribution

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• Squared z distribution
• Always positive
• Non-directional, one-tailed, two-sided
• Distribution depends on df
• First need to calculate expected frequency
• 3 tests: independency, homogeneity, goodness of fit
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Standard error

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Approximate standard deviation of a sample population (i.e. measures the accuracy with which a sample distribution represents a population by using standard deviation)

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Subjective probability

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Definition of probability in terms of personal subjective belief in the likelihood of an outcome

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Sampling distributions

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• A distribution of a statistic derived from all possible samples (repeated sampling) of a specific size (n) from a population
• Lets us know how much variation can be expected (also over repeated trials)
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Null hypothesis (H₀)

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• Statement saying there is no change/difference/relationship
• μ1 - μ 2 = 0

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Hypothesis testing

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• A statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a null hypothesis
• Data is ambiguous
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Sample statistics

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Statistics that describe characteristics of samples (e.g., mean, variance, range, correlation coefficient, proportions)

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Sampling distribution of differences between means

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Distribution of means of two samples drawn from the two independent populations (the difference between the population means can be evaluated by the difference between the sample means)

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t-test

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• Test statistic used to determine whether two samples were drawn from populations with the same mean
• H₀: μ1 = μ2 OR μ1 - μ2 = 0
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Joint probability

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• Probability of the co-occurence of two or more events
• If independent, probability of joint occurrence can be calculated through multiplicative law
• p(A, B)
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Marginal totals

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Sum of row/column entries

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• 345 Studierende
• 20 Lernmaterialien

## Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Inferential statistics Kurs an der Leiden University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Alternative (research) hypothesis

A:

Statement of expectation/prediction that will be tested

Q:

X² distribution

A:
• Squared z distribution
• Always positive
• Non-directional, one-tailed, two-sided
• Distribution depends on df
• First need to calculate expected frequency
• 3 tests: independency, homogeneity, goodness of fit
Q:

Standard error

A:

Approximate standard deviation of a sample population (i.e. measures the accuracy with which a sample distribution represents a population by using standard deviation)

Q:

Subjective probability

A:

Definition of probability in terms of personal subjective belief in the likelihood of an outcome

Q:

Sampling distributions

A:
• A distribution of a statistic derived from all possible samples (repeated sampling) of a specific size (n) from a population
• Lets us know how much variation can be expected (also over repeated trials)
Q:

Null hypothesis (H₀)

A:
• Statement saying there is no change/difference/relationship
• μ1 - μ 2 = 0

Q:

Hypothesis testing

A:
• A statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a null hypothesis
• Data is ambiguous
Q:

Sample statistics

A:

Statistics that describe characteristics of samples (e.g., mean, variance, range, correlation coefficient, proportions)

Q:

Sampling distribution of differences between means

A:

Distribution of means of two samples drawn from the two independent populations (the difference between the population means can be evaluated by the difference between the sample means)

Q:
t-test

A:
• Test statistic used to determine whether two samples were drawn from populations with the same mean
• H₀: μ1 = μ2 OR μ1 - μ2 = 0
Q:

Joint probability

A:
• Probability of the co-occurence of two or more events
• If independent, probability of joint occurrence can be calculated through multiplicative law
• p(A, B)
Q:

Marginal totals

A:

Sum of row/column entries ### Erstelle und finde Lernmaterialien auf StudySmarter.

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