Inferential Statistics at Leiden University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Inferential statistics an der Leiden University

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Alternative (research) hypothesis 

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Statement of expectation/prediction that will be tested

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X² distribution

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  • Squared z distribution
  • Always positive
  • Non-directional, one-tailed, two-sided
  • Distribution depends on df
  • First need to calculate expected frequency
  • 3 tests: independency, homogeneity, goodness of fit
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Standard error

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Approximate standard deviation of a sample population (i.e. measures the accuracy with which a sample distribution represents a population by using standard deviation)

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Subjective probability 

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Definition of probability in terms of personal subjective belief in the likelihood of an outcome

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Sampling distributions 

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  • A distribution of a statistic derived from all possible samples (repeated sampling) of a specific size (n) from a population
  • Lets us know how much variation can be expected (also over repeated trials)
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Null hypothesis (H₀)

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  • Statement saying there is no change/difference/relationship
  • μ1 - μ 2 = 0


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Hypothesis testing 

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  • A statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a null hypothesis
  • Data is ambiguous 
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Sample statistics

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Statistics that describe characteristics of samples (e.g., mean, variance, range, correlation coefficient, proportions)

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Sampling distribution of differences between means

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Distribution of means of two samples drawn from the two independent populations (the difference between the population means can be evaluated by the difference between the sample means)

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t-test


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  • Test statistic used to determine whether two samples were drawn from populations with the same mean
  • H₀: μ1 = μ2 OR μ1 - μ2 = 0
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Joint probability

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  • Probability of the co-occurence of two or more events
  • If independent, probability of joint occurrence can be calculated through multiplicative law
  • p(A, B)
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Marginal totals

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Sum of row/column entries 

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  • 9098 Karteikarten
  • 345 Studierende
  • 20 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Inferential statistics Kurs an der Leiden University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Alternative (research) hypothesis 

A:

Statement of expectation/prediction that will be tested

Q:

X² distribution

A:
  • Squared z distribution
  • Always positive
  • Non-directional, one-tailed, two-sided
  • Distribution depends on df
  • First need to calculate expected frequency
  • 3 tests: independency, homogeneity, goodness of fit
Q:

Standard error

A:

Approximate standard deviation of a sample population (i.e. measures the accuracy with which a sample distribution represents a population by using standard deviation)

Q:

Subjective probability 

A:

Definition of probability in terms of personal subjective belief in the likelihood of an outcome

Q:

Sampling distributions 

A:
  • A distribution of a statistic derived from all possible samples (repeated sampling) of a specific size (n) from a population
  • Lets us know how much variation can be expected (also over repeated trials)
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Q:

Null hypothesis (H₀)

A:
  • Statement saying there is no change/difference/relationship
  • μ1 - μ 2 = 0


Q:

Hypothesis testing 

A:
  • A statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a null hypothesis
  • Data is ambiguous 
Q:

Sample statistics

A:

Statistics that describe characteristics of samples (e.g., mean, variance, range, correlation coefficient, proportions)

Q:

Sampling distribution of differences between means

A:

Distribution of means of two samples drawn from the two independent populations (the difference between the population means can be evaluated by the difference between the sample means)

Q:
t-test


A:
  • Test statistic used to determine whether two samples were drawn from populations with the same mean
  • H₀: μ1 = μ2 OR μ1 - μ2 = 0
Q:

Joint probability

A:
  • Probability of the co-occurence of two or more events
  • If independent, probability of joint occurrence can be calculated through multiplicative law
  • p(A, B)
Q:

Marginal totals

A:

Sum of row/column entries 

Inferential statistics

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