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Lernmaterialien für Fungus an der Keele University

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What are the components of a fungi cell wall and membrane?

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have b-glucan and chitin, which provide strength and rigidity 

They have ergosterol instead of cholesterol in the cell membrane  

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What are the different types of fungi?

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Yeast - unicellular 

Facultative anaerobes (aerobic and anaerobic depending if oxygen is or is not available)

Moulds - multicellular 


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What are dermatophytes?

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They are fungi that require keratin for growth 

Two types:

Trichophyton mentagrophytes 

Microsporum canis 

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How do most animals control fungal infections?

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The innate immune system

Fungi are recognised receptors on the surface of cells 

Some receptors include:

Toll-like receptors 

C-type lectin receptors 

Both found on the surface of the hosts cells 

When there is a decreased immune system the host can not provide a strong enough response or a response that lasts long enough to overcome the fungal infection 

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What is a fungal infection example?

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Cryptococcosis 

This is a dimorphic basidiomycetous fungi, which means they change from a yeast to a mould. Cryptococcus neoformans changes to filobasidiella neoformans 

Transmission is the inhalation of spores 

It localises in the cnetral nervous system and crosses the blood brain barrier 


Sporotrichosis 

Causes lesions at point of entry and along the lymphatic system 

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What are the anti-fungals?

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Cell membrane:

Amphotericin 

These bind to the fungal membrane which causes and increased membrane permeability, causing leakage from the fungal cell 

Echinocandina 

Azoles 

Macrolides 


Mitotosis:

Griseofulvin 

Inhibits the formation of mitotic spindles, it prevents growth


DNA synthesis:

Flucytosine 

Inhibit fungal protein synthesis 


Imidazoles 

Inhibits DNA sunthesis 

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What is extracellular digestion?

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It is the type of digestion that fungi complete 

Exocytic vesicles are pushed out of the tip of the hyphae during exocytosis 

They digest the contact outside the cell and then reabsorb the content back into the hyphae 

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What organisms can fungi live off?

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Sacrotrophs - live off dead decomposing organic matter 

Biotrophic - feed off living cells 

Necrotrophic - invade the living cells kill them and the digest them 

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What are exoenzymes?

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Enzymes are secreted by a cell and function outside the cell, the cause the destruction of multiple tissues and spreading of spores 

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Types of infection

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Opportunistic

Pathogenic 

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What makes up moulds?

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Hyphae which are long branching filamentous structures 

The mycelium is the vegetative part of the fungus made by lots of hyphae 

Types of hyphae:

Septate - cross walls from between hyphae cells 

Coenocytic - have no walls

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What are the reproduction cycles?

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Zygomycete 

zygomycetes - sporangiophores - sporangiospores 

Internally (spores produced in an air sac)


Ascomycete 

Ascomycetes - conidiophores - conidia 

External spores

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Q:

What are the components of a fungi cell wall and membrane?

A:

have b-glucan and chitin, which provide strength and rigidity 

They have ergosterol instead of cholesterol in the cell membrane  

Q:

What are the different types of fungi?

A:

Yeast - unicellular 

Facultative anaerobes (aerobic and anaerobic depending if oxygen is or is not available)

Moulds - multicellular 


Q:

What are dermatophytes?

A:

They are fungi that require keratin for growth 

Two types:

Trichophyton mentagrophytes 

Microsporum canis 

Q:

How do most animals control fungal infections?

A:

The innate immune system

Fungi are recognised receptors on the surface of cells 

Some receptors include:

Toll-like receptors 

C-type lectin receptors 

Both found on the surface of the hosts cells 

When there is a decreased immune system the host can not provide a strong enough response or a response that lasts long enough to overcome the fungal infection 

Q:

What is a fungal infection example?

A:

Cryptococcosis 

This is a dimorphic basidiomycetous fungi, which means they change from a yeast to a mould. Cryptococcus neoformans changes to filobasidiella neoformans 

Transmission is the inhalation of spores 

It localises in the cnetral nervous system and crosses the blood brain barrier 


Sporotrichosis 

Causes lesions at point of entry and along the lymphatic system 

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Q:

What are the anti-fungals?

A:

Cell membrane:

Amphotericin 

These bind to the fungal membrane which causes and increased membrane permeability, causing leakage from the fungal cell 

Echinocandina 

Azoles 

Macrolides 


Mitotosis:

Griseofulvin 

Inhibits the formation of mitotic spindles, it prevents growth


DNA synthesis:

Flucytosine 

Inhibit fungal protein synthesis 


Imidazoles 

Inhibits DNA sunthesis 

Q:

What is extracellular digestion?

A:

It is the type of digestion that fungi complete 

Exocytic vesicles are pushed out of the tip of the hyphae during exocytosis 

They digest the contact outside the cell and then reabsorb the content back into the hyphae 

Q:

What organisms can fungi live off?

A:

Sacrotrophs - live off dead decomposing organic matter 

Biotrophic - feed off living cells 

Necrotrophic - invade the living cells kill them and the digest them 

Q:

What are exoenzymes?

A:

Enzymes are secreted by a cell and function outside the cell, the cause the destruction of multiple tissues and spreading of spores 

Q:

Types of infection

A:

Opportunistic

Pathogenic 

Q:

What makes up moulds?

A:

Hyphae which are long branching filamentous structures 

The mycelium is the vegetative part of the fungus made by lots of hyphae 

Types of hyphae:

Septate - cross walls from between hyphae cells 

Coenocytic - have no walls

Q:

What are the reproduction cycles?

A:

Zygomycete 

zygomycetes - sporangiophores - sporangiospores 

Internally (spores produced in an air sac)


Ascomycete 

Ascomycetes - conidiophores - conidia 

External spores

Fungus

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